Lands of the Republic of Poland under partition

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The lands of the Republic of Poland under partition in 1821

Ethnographic and statistical map of the dispersion of the Polish population, ca. 1900

Territories of the partitioned states on a map of communes of modern Poland from 1866 to 1914

Table of contents

1 History

1.1 Genesis 1.2 Calendar 1.3 1795-1831 1.4 1831-1914 1.5 1914-1918

2 Russian partition

2.1 Economy 2.2 Religion

3 Prussian partition

3.1 Germanization

4 Austrian partition

4.1 Economy

5 Polish culture during the partitions

5.1 Literature

5.1.1 Romanticism 5.1.2 Positivism 5.1.3 Young Poland

5.2 Art

5.2.1 Romanticism and Positivism 5.2.2 Young Poland

6 Economy on Polish lands during the partition period

6.1 Agriculture

6.2 Transportation

6.2.1 Railroads

7 See also 8 Notes 9 Footnotes 10 Bibliography

History[edit | edit code]

Genesis[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Partitions of Poland.

Calendar[edit | edit code].

Galicia (1772-1918)

Greater Poland uprising (1794)

Greater Poland uprising (1806-1807)

Free City of Danzig (1807-1813)

Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815)

Kingdom of Poland (congressional) (1815-1831)

Grand Duchy of Posen (1815-1849)

Free City of Cracow (1815-1846)

November Uprising (1830-1831)

Galician slaughter (1846)

Cracow uprising (1846)

Greater Poland uprising (1846)

Spring of Nations in the Polish lands (1848)

Greater Poland uprising (1848)

January uprising (1863-1864)

Zabaykal uprising (1866) Revolution of 1905 in the Kingdom of Poland

Kingdom of Poland (1916-1918)

1795-1831[edit | edit code].

Separate article: History of Poland (1795-1831).

Chapter of Polish history covering the period from the Third Partition of Poland to the fall of the November Uprising. After the fall of the Polish state (1795), the Polish state was divided by 3 states: Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia and Russia. The division of the state caused a wave of emigration, the main direction of which was the territories of present-day Italy, as well as Saxony and France. In January 1797, Polish army units called the Polish Legions in Italy were formed there. The commander was General Jan Henryk Dabrowski. The Legions took part in the battles for Rome, and in July 1797 lived to hear their own song called Song of the Polish Legions in Italy, whose 4 stanzas became the Polish national anthem in 1926. After the French army defeated the 3 invaders and liberated part of the Polish lands, the Duchy of Warsaw was established in 1807. In 1809 it was expanded to include part of the lands of the Austrian partition. About 100,000 Polish army took part in the French invasion of Russia (1811-1812). After Napoleon’s defeat and exile on the island of Saint Helena, the Duchy of Warsaw was placed under Russian administration. After the Congress of Vienna (1815), its name was changed to the Kingdom of Poland, with the Russian Czar as King of Poland. On November 29, 1830, the November Uprising broke out in the Kingdom of Poland, which, on January 25, 1831, after the dethronement of Czar Nicholas I, turned into the Polish-Russian War. This war ended in victory for Russia. The Kingdom of Poland lost most of its attributes of independence and de facto became part of the Russian Empire.

See also: Independence organizations in the Polish lands 1815-1830.

1831-1914[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Polish History (1831-1914).

Joint maneuvers of the Army of the Russian Empire and the Prussian army in Kalisz in 1835, in the presence of Russian Emperor Nicholas I Romanov and King Frederick William III of Prussia, to commemorate the conclusion of the Treaty of Kalisz in 1813.

Separate article: Münchengrätz Convention (1833).

The defeat of the November Uprising in 1831 strengthened the Russian Empire’s position in Europe and negatively affected Polish society. Czar Nicholas I departed completely from the policies of Alexander I[a], which also encouraged the other partitioners to introduce a harsh course on their own territory[2].

In accordance with the provisions adopted at Münchengrätz in 1833, the partitioners guaranteed mutual surrender of political fugitives and cooperation in the prosecution of new conspiracies and insurrectionary attempts. In addition, they were supported by the papacy, which, with the encyclical Cum primum by Gregory XVI, sharply condemned the November Uprising as a “revolution.” The Pope was particularly allergic to any uprising of this type, as the Italian revolutionaries threatened him in the Church State. In the future, Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary were to use the encyclical to urge the Polish clergy to oppose the Poles’ struggle for national liberation[3].

In the Congress Kingdom (commonly referred to as Congress Poland) and in the other partitioned territories, attempts were made to preserve national consciousness. Although there was no shortage of conspiracies and insurrectionary preparations, often inspired by circles of the Great Emigration (such as Zaliwski’s partisans), there was also the idea of organic labor, which placed a premium on economic development, science and national culture, through which the ever-increasing Russification and Germanization were resisted. Important centers of the struggle to preserve Polishness were (besides Kraków, which was independent for the longest time) Warsaw in the Russian partition, Lviv in the Austrian partition and Poznań in the Prussian partition. The period in question also saw several important independence uprisings, with the January Uprising at the forefront. As a result, Poland suffered huge losses in both human and material assets[4].

At the same time, it was a period of increased urbanization, significant industrial development and the emergence of – previously unknown (or not playing much of a role) classes in Poland – the working class, intelligentsia and bourgeoisie, and with them new socially motivated political currents. The abolition of serfdom led to the creation (contrary to the intentions of the partitioners) of a people’s movement, an important factor in social and national education in the countryside. These changes led – at the end of the 19th century – to the formation of political groups that, in addition to nationalist slogans, also preached social slogans, and at the same time (at the end of the period in question, in Galicia) numerous organizations of a paramilitary nature, which formed the basis for building the beginnings of the armed forces needed during the upcoming global conflict, which was to be a world war[5].

1914-1918[edit | edit code].

The history of Poland between 1914 and 1918 covers a short, only four-year slice of history, but the events of this four-year period had a decisive impact on Poland’s situation in both the international and domestic arenas. In 1914, World War I broke out with the participation of the partitioning powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. It led to the strengthening of a sense of national identity among Poles, and its course and results (primarily the collapse of all three partitioning powers) enabled the restoration of an independent Polish state.

This period is contained between two dates – August 3, 1914 (Pilsudski’s speech to soldiers in Krakow’s Oleandry district) and November 11, 1918 (the transfer of power to Pilsudski by the Regency Council). Over the course of this time – with the shifting of fronts and the changing fortunes of the various partitioning powers, both Polish concepts (regarding the ways and means of regaining independence) and those of the partitioning powers, as well as those of Western Europe and the United States, leading to the resolution of the Polish cause were shaped. As a result of the course of the war, which was difficult to predict beforehand, all interested parties had to outdo each other in declarations, and soon also in deeds, which lay behind the creation of a Polish army (Austro-Hungary, German occupation, Russia, France) and the seeds of a state organism (German occupation, France). All this together meant that when World War I ended on November 11, 1918, Poland emerged as an internationally recognized state, with a prepared political and administrative cadre, as well as attachments of the army, executive and judicial organs.

Russian partition[edit | edit code].

Separate articles: the Russian partition, the Kingdom of Poland (congressional) and the partitioned lands.

The rulers of the Russian Empire, ruling the territories of the former Republic, conducted autocratic and absolute rule. With regard to Poles, they mostly applied a policy of assimilation, aiming to turn them into “true Christians, loyal citizens and good Russians,” acting to this end through methods of persuasion and coercion. The tsarist authorities abolished the previous institutions of noble democracy, introduced compulsory military service in the standing army, replaced provinces with gubernias, and introduced a centralized and hierarchy-based state administration to teach and demand obedience to the ruler. In 1815, on part of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland was established with its capital in Warsaw, which was united with Russia by a personal union, with the tsar as titular king; however, in 1831 the Sejm dethroned King Nicholas I Romanov and removed the Romanov dynasty from the Polish throne[6]. Censorship and a policy of Russification of schools, offices and public life were introduced. Although Poles were treated with suspicion as potential rebels, the policy of coercion and enforcement of obedience targeted all subjects of the tsar to the same degree, regardless of nationality.

The society of the Russian partition saw a chance for liberation in Napoleonic France, and two Polish legions were formed in Napoleon’s army. However, these hopes were dashed, as Napoleon did not intend to use the legions to fight for Polish independence. It was only after the defeat of Russia and Prussia against France in 1805 and 1806 that the French-controlled Duchy of Warsaw was established. The Duchy restored partial autonomy to the Polish government, but did not last long. After the fall of Napoleon, in 1815 the victorious states decided to divide it again.

The tsarist policy of assimilating Poles into Russian society did not have the intended effect. In social and social life, Poles functioned separately from Russians, and state coercion gave rise to feelings of frustration and isolation. At the same time, the process of industrialization and technological development continued, the social effect of which was the sudden growth of cities, mainly industrial Lodz and commercial and financial Warsaw, which increased their populations many times over. In the cities, social classes of workers and industrialists were created, while the countryside remained backward – the obligation of serfdom lasted in Congress until 1864, much longer than in the other partitions. Jews became a significant part of the urban social classes, both Polish Jews migrating to the cities for work and so-called “Lithuanians” resettled from Russia.

In 1825, the authoritarian Tsar Nicholas I ascended to the throne, and soon repressed the secret national associations that had been formed in Poland. These actions overlapped with the wave of revolutions in Europe in the following years. In 1830, a group of Polish conspirators in the tsar’s army, having received news of the mobilization of the Russian army to crush the revolutions in Belgium and France, decided to take military action. On November 29, 1830, the November Uprising broke out. In February 1831, Russian troops entered the Kingdom and were driven back by the insurgents, but the politically divided insurgent staff failed to capitalize on the initial victory. Russian troops made up for their losses in July 1831 and, aided by Prussia, crushed the uprising two months later. Participants in the uprising were sentenced to exile or imprisonment, and the functioning of the Sejm and most public institutions was suspended. About 10,000 people left the Kingdom, forming a circle of the so-called Great Emigration in France. Repression in the Kingdom of Poland was maintained until the death of Nicholas I[7].

The reign of Nicholas II brought a political thaw, an amnesty for exiles and a partial restoration of civil rights. At the same time, however, secret unions revived, preaching the slogans of a “moral revolution” that soon took over society. To stop the revolutionary tendencies, the conciliatory politician Aleksander Wielopolski in January 1863 ordered the start of conscription, which the conspirators perceived as an act of aggression and attacked Russian garrisons, starting the January Uprising. The insurgents, divided into political factions of “whites” and “reds” and lacking a coherent command, waged guerrilla warfare. The uprising was suppressed in August 1864. Its collapse was followed by another wave of brutal repression, and the Kingdom of Poland was formally abolished as a separate province.

The last decades of the 19th century were a period of moderate development for the Russian partition, in which the social and political losses caused by the fall of the January Uprising were offset by the progressive industrialization of the cities and the formation of the Polish political scene, which would fully emerge in the early 20th century[7].

See also Russification in the Polish lands and Polish exiles in the Russian Empire.

Economy[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Customs war between the Kingdom of Poland and the Kingdom of Prussia.

Seal of Treasury Minister Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki

The Kingdom of Poland existed in its initial form for 15 years. During this period, significant economic development took place, especially concerning the emerging metallurgical, mining and textile industries. The metallurgical industry was mainly iron and zinc metallurgy, which developed in the area of Dabrowa Gornicza and Starachowice. Coal, zinc and copper mining were concentrated in the Dąbrowa Basin. The textile industry included cloth and cotton manufactories in Lodz and hundreds of cloth workshops located in Kalisz, Sieradz and Warsaw (the Kalisz-Mazovian industrial district). The development of this field of production was possible mainly thanks to exports to Russian markets, facilitated by low, preferential customs duties on the border with Russia. Foreign exports increased threefold in the Kingdom, and some Polish products gained recognition on world markets. The father of this industrialization of the Kingdom of Poland was the Treasury Minister of the Administrative Council, Prince Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki.

Cities were developing, mainly Warsaw, Kalisz, Lublin and Plock[8]. Warsaw was put in urban order, and the great reconstruction of Kalisz began[9]. New cities related to the growing industry around Lodz were created. Communication investments in the Kingdom developed significantly, including the construction of a network of beaten roads, the calming of rivers, and the construction of the Augustow Canal began. The development of agricultural production was worse, mainly due to the maintenance of feudal serfdom structures in the countryside. The ruling nobility did not intend to carry out the enfranchisement of peasants, as was done in western Europe for the benefit of agricultural prosperity.

Religion[edit | edit code].

Separate articles: The administrative division of the Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1918) and The suppression of monasteries in the Russian partition.

Catholics accounted for 84% of the population of the Kingdom of Poland in 1827, followers of the Greek rite 1.9%, Protestants 4.4% and Jews 9.1%[10].

In 1871, the area of the Kingdom of Poland had a population of 6,026,421, of which 4,596,956 (76.28%) were Catholics of the Latin rite and 327,845 (5.44%) were Protestants[11].

Reformed evangelicals (Calvinists) living in the Kingdom initially belonged to three different ecclesiastical provinces dating back to the First Republic: the parishes in Zychlin and Wola Tłumakowa, were subject to the Unity of Greater Poland; 5 parishes belonged to the Unity of Lesser Poland, while the parish in Sereja belonged to the Unity of Lithuania. The parishes of Warsaw and Zelow functioned separately. In 1817 an Evangelical-Reformed consistory was established in Warsaw, to which all parishes except those in Malopolska were subordinate, and which was headed by the energetic Rev. Karol Bogumił Diehl. It is estimated that the number of Reformed evangelicals then reached about 2,500 believers[12]. In 1829-1849 they were part of the General Consistory of Evangelical Denominations. After its liquidation by a decree of Tsar-King Nicholas I, the Evangelical-Reformed Synod, popularly known as the Warsaw Unity, was established, comprising five parishes: in Warsaw, Serejach, Sielc, Zelow and Zychlin, with about 4,500 believers. In time, other parishes were established in Kucow (1850), Lublin and Starowiczna (1852), Zyrardow (1874), Suwalki (1877), Nowosolna (1881) and Lodz (1904). According to the 1897 census, there were 5503 Reformed evangelicals living in the Kingdom. The most numerous parishes were those in Warsaw and Zelow. The church authorities were dominated by Poles and Polish was the liturgical language, although services were held in Polish, German and French. According to the 1897 census, Czechs (48%) outnumbered Germans (27%) and Poles were said to make up only 21% of the faithful[13].

Prussian partition[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Prussian partition.

On the territory of Prussia, the Grand Duchy of Posen was established to satisfy the national ambitions of Poles, which was abolished after the Greater Poland Uprisings of 1846 and 1848.

Germanization[edit | edit code].

1831; insurgent troops cross the border into Prussia. Finis Poloniae 1831 painting by Dietrich Monten

In 1772, the First Partition of the Republic of Poland took place. As a result of the subsequent partitions, Poland ceased to exist on the map as a state. Its territory was incorporated into Prussia, the Austrian Empire and Russia. After the fall of the Kosciuszko Insurrection, Prussia (within whose borders even Warsaw was included) consisted of 40% Polish nationals. Everything indicated that the kingdom would become a Germanic-Slavic state. However, this did not happen. The old dynastic policy of the Prussian court was replaced by a new German nationalism.

The Prussians embarked on an intensive integration campaign. Its main elements were the settlement of the German population in Polish lands. The landed property of monasteries and participants in the Kosciuszko uprising, confiscated in 1795, was distributed or sold at low prices, and the Germanization of Polish youth was undertaken, implemented, among other things, through education in a German school and military service in the Prussian army. In order to prepare young people for military service, the Prussians established a military school – the Cadet Corps – in Kalisz, in the buildings of the left wing of the former Jesuit college. The official opening of this school took place in 1797, and the initial number of one hundred and twenty-five students soon grew to 200. The education included a preparatory course in German, Prussian history, basic mathematics and military subjects. Graduates of this school were then sent to the Cadet Corps in Berlin, and upon graduation, to serve in the Prussian army.

The conduct of the occupation authorities toward the Polish population was met with a hostile reception. This unfavorable attitude toward the Prussians was further exacerbated by news of the wars waged by Napoleon Bonaparte and the battles of the Polish Legions operating at his side, commanded by Jan Henryk Dabrowski. In 1806, when the Prussian army was crushed by Napoleon’s army, the situation of the Polish population residing in the Prussian partitioned areas changed completely, as the Polish cause found itself in the orbit of the French Emperor’s interest.

A massive campaign of Germanization of the Polish population began on a large scale in the 1830s. In Silesia, Gdansk Pomerania, Warmia and Masuria, the Prussian authorities exchanged officials of Polish origin for Germans in education and administration. After the November Uprising in the Grand Duchy of Posen, the position of Polish governor (Antoni Radziwill) was abolished and the restriction of the Polish language in education and administration began. The Prussian government also conducted a campaign to buy up manors and landed estates from the impoverished Polish nobility.

German map from 1905 showing the extent of the Polish-speaking majority in Posen.

The fall of the January Uprising was followed by arrests of Poles and a further tightening of the anti-Polish course. After the unification of Germany in 1871, Chancellor Bismarck announced the kulturkampf action. Priests who refused to submit to the Kulturexamen were removed from office, and dioceses were stripped of their subsidies[14]. In 1874, Polish was removed from secondary schools, and in 1886 from elementary schools. Corporal punishment by some German teachers was used against children who spoke Polish at school. Poles living in Germany and other partitions were most appalled by the events of 1901-1902 at the school in Września. Polish children there were whipped by German teachers and police for refusing to speak German during religious lessons. In protest, they announced the so-called Wrzesnia Children’s Strike, which reverberated throughout the world at the time. Maria Konopnicka and Henryk Sienkiewicz protested against the brutal Germanization of Polish children in Września. Konopnicka wrote a highly emotional poem, “On Września,” while Sienkiewicz published two letters in the Cracow magazine “Czas”: “On Prussian Rape” in November 1901 and “Open Letter to J.C.M. Wilhelm II, King of Prussia” in November 1906. In these letters he condemned the Prussian authorities’ treatment of Polish children, as well as anti-Polish Prussian policies. The 1906 letter was printed by all Polish newspapers in the Austrian and Russian annexations, as well as many foreign magazines, as in 1905 Sienkiewicz received the Nobel Prize for lifetime achievement in art, becoming a very well-known person in the world.

In 1886, the German government created the Colonization Commission and the General Commission, whose task was to buy land from Poles living in Greater Poland and Gdansk Pomerania. In return, German peasants brought from the depths of the Reich were settled en masse on these lands. The Prussian government allocated 100 million marks for this purpose at one time, and continually subsidized the Commission’s budget after they were exhausted. In total, by 1914 the Commission had used about 1 billion German marks – as part of this extensive campaign, it purchased 126,259 hectares from Polish hands between 1886 and 1915. In total, some 150,000 small- and medium-sized peasants from the hinterland of Germany were settled on the purchased land.

In 1894, the “Deutscher Ostmarkenverein” (German: Deutscher Ostmarkenverein, DOV), called Hakata by Poles (from the names of the founders Hansemann, Kennemann, Tiedemann), was established in Poznan. It was an organization of German nationalists, conducting harsh anti-Polish propaganda. It was on its initiative that a law was issued in 1904, which prohibited the erection of residential buildings on newly acquired land without the consent of the local authorities. Famous was the case of Michal Drzymala, who, unable to obtain permission to build a house, lived with his family in a circus wagon.

In 1908, the Reichstag passed a new law on associations with a so-called “muzzling paragraph” (para. 12). It stipulated that meetings in a language other than German could be held only in cities where the Polish population made up more than 60%. These measures were counterproductive[15].

Poles in the Prussian partition repeatedly took up arms against the Germans. Over the course of 100 years – between 1794 and 1919, five so-called Greater Poland Uprisings took place in Greater Poland, in which Polish patriots tried to gain independence. The entire period eventually led to the incorporation of Greater Poland, which the Germans called “Südprussen,” into the Second Republic.

See also Prussian Rulings.

Austrian annexation[edit | edit code].

Wawel Castle in Cracow, 1847; painting by Jan Nepomucen Glowacki.

Separate article: Austrian annexation.

Ruled by the Habsburg dynasty, Austria was politically the weakest – and from 1867, after its defeat in the war with Prussia at the same time the most liberal – of the three partitioning states. The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was formed from the Polish lands incorporated into Austria. The name was said to derive from the medieval Ruthenian principalities of Halicz and Vladimir. Galicia was the province farthest from Vienna, the least modern and the poorest. Unlike the Russian partition, Galicia never developed a large industry, no working class or urban middle class emerged. Aside from the salt mine in Wieliczka and the oil fields in Boryslaw, Galicia did not generate much income. The influential class consisted of a few wealthy Polish aristocratic families, the middle gentry subsisted on unprofitable manors and were mostly in debt, while the countryside was severely overcrowded and lived on the verge of poverty. The quality and length of life in the countryside were the lowest of all the partitions, and often the only option for Galician peasants was to leave the country – 2 million people left Galicia in the last 25 years of the 19th century alone.

Lviv became the provincial capital; after 1846 the Free City of Krakow, hitherto formally autonomous, was also incorporated into Galicia. Poles made up 45% of the population; Ukrainians, formerly known as Ruthenians, made up a similar proportion (41%). Until the mid-19th century, Austria was a centralized absolute monarchy in which the Polish lands played no major role. In 1846, the Krakow uprising, organized by the nobility, broke out – a small-scale independence armed action that coincided with the outbreak of an anti-slavery peasant uprising known as the Galician rabble. The outbreak of the rabble was partly provoked by the Austrians in order to stop the actions of the nobility and internally divide society. The Cracow uprising was suppressed, while the rabble evolved into a Galician-wide violent riot targeting the manors. The final result of the rebellion was the widening of inter-class divisions, but also the beginning of the decline of feudalism and the abolition of serfdom.

First Cadre Company in Cracow, 1914

Beginning in the 1860s, a group of conservative politicians led by Agenor Goluchowski sought to grant Galicia autonomy within the Empire. As a result of their efforts, between 1867 and 1872 Galicia was granted a number of rights – the National Diet was established to decide provincial affairs, the official Polish language and Polish-language lectures at universities were restored, and new institutions of learning were established. Although the Sejm was dominated by the aristocracy, Galicia was the only partition where Poles participated in government. Scientific development contributed to the education of a generation of outstanding scientists and artists, and Kraków and Lviv became cultural centers. The second half of the 19th century also became a time in Galicia for the formation of a national independence movement for both Poles and Ukrainians. Pilsudski’s Legions[16] began their activities in Krakow.

Economy[edit | edit code].

Prior to the industrialization period, the favorable natural conditions of the land caused severe overpopulation in the countryside[17]. The first attempts of the authorities to reform and annul all contracts of heirs with their serfs, in which the obligations of doing serfdom were established, came to nothing (see Kazimierz Milbacher). Consequently, the replacement of traditional Polish law with Austrian law abolishing the relics of the feudal system ended with the outbreak of the Galician slaughter. For the first eighty years it was the most civilizationally backward partition. It experienced neither the effects of the Stanislav era nor the reforms of Austrian enlightened absolutism. For a long time, the authorities in Vienna pursued a somewhat colonial policy towards the region: the level of taxes was very high, and Galician residents were disproportionately conscripted into the army. Nor did the province, from the point of view of the imperial government, present any particular value: the possibility of a possible trade of these lands to Balkan or German territories was seriously considered[18]. From the middle of the 19th century, despite the freedom of business and a relatively dense (compared to the lands of the Russian partition) railroad network, Galicia was the least developed and poorest crown land of Austria, resulting in numerous emigrations, including to North America. Historian Norman Davies describes the situation in Galicia as more hopeless than in Ireland during the early days of the Great Famine[19]. Stanisław Szczepanowski’s publication Nędza Galicji w cyfrach (The Misery of Galicia in Numbers), published in Lviv in 1888, gives a poignant picture of the reality of a province where 50% of children died before the age of 5. In 1900, there was 1 doctor for every 9,000 residents, and not a single hospital existed in the 100,000-strong Borszczow district. 33% of the villages lacked a school, and there was 1 teacher for every 91 students. The structure of land use was defective: more than 40% of the acreage was in the hands of 2,400 large landowners, while 80% of peasants owned farms smaller than 4 hectares[20]. Galicia had a checkerboard of agricultural land, long and narrow plots in the plains and short and narrow plots in the mountainous areas[21]. The proverbial Galician poverty became the reason why the province’s name was twisted into Golitsa and Glodomeria[22].

See more in the article Free City of Cracow, in the Economy section.

Polish culture during the partition[edit | edit code].

The Partition period was a time of dynamic development of Polish culture, which contributed to the development of Polish national consciousness[23].

The second half of the 19th century represents a period of formation of national consciousness of the popular strata in all partitions[1].

Literature[edit | edit code].

Romanticism[edit | edit code].

Title page of Pan Tadeusz, 1834

Separate article: Polish literature – Romanticism.

The situation of the loss of independence in 1795 significantly affected Polish literature, which henceforth performed the function of maintaining national consciousness. Under the influence of German and English Romanticism, a current of Polish Romanticism was formed and developed, initially competing with classicism and postanislavic sentimentalism, and later dominating until 1863. During the post-partition period, folk tales, legends and songs were collected (Oskar Kolberg). The literary situation was changed by the collapse of the November Uprising: writing from then on was divided into domestic literature (historical novels by Kraszewski, gentry storytelling by Rzewuski, comedies of manners by Fredro) and emigration, where important works for Polish literature were created: Mickiewicz’s Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve) and Pan Tadeusz (which was recognized as a national epic), Slowacki’s Kordian, Krasinski’s Nie-Boska komedia. There was a rapid development of lyric poetry, including mystical poetry, and such genres as romantic drama, the digressive poem and a number of others appeared. Works created during this period were referred to by all later literary eras[24][25]

Positivism[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Polish literature – positivism.

The year 1864 (the fall of the January Uprising) is usually considered[26] to be the beginning of positivism in Poland. The country’s political situation, disbelief in regaining independence through the method of armed resistance and interest in scientific discoveries, changed the role assigned to Polish literature of that period. It was to be primarily useful and responsive to current events and social problems. Poetry diminished in importance (although it was still being written, with authors including Maria Konopnicka and Adam Asnyk), and the highest valued literary genre became the realistic novel (including Meir Ezofowicz and Eliza Orzeszkowa’s Nad Niemnem and Bolesław Prus’ Lalka) or the tendentious novel (including Kraszewski’s Dziadunio, Orzeszkowa’s Pan Graba, Wacława’s Pamiętnik). Numerous novellas were also created (Konopnicka, Sienkiewicz, Prus), as well as historical novels, such as: Prus’ Pharaoh and Ogniem i mieczem, Potop, Pan Wołodyjowski, Krzyżacy, Henryk Sienkiewicz’s Quo vadis[27].

Young Poland[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Polish literature – Young Poland.

Young Poland is the self-description of a group of artists from 1890-1918 and comes from Arthur Gorski’s program manifesto, in which he criticized the positivists and presented a literary program of young artists. The program drew attention to the above-average nature of the artist, elevated him to the rank of a bard, while the common man was called a “philistine,” or limited person. Freedom and the separation of art from cultural heritage were demanded. The slogan “art for art’s sake” emerged, meaning the abandonment of the civic duties of writing, and the emphasis on individualism and individual experience. At the same time, some artists continued the liberation issues. This is when Jan Kasprowicz, Tadeusz Micinski, Leopold Staff, Stanisław Wyspiański, Stefan Żeromski created. An important figure of the Young Poland period was Stanislaw Przybyszewski, from whose output the novel Il Regno Doloroso and the autobiography My contemporaries are noteworthy.

Art[edit | edit code].

Romanticism and positivism[edit | edit code].

Paradoxically, during the period of partition in the territories of Poland in the past and present, the importance of foreign art decreases, for the main trends developed in the main artistic centers of the partitioning countries (Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg), although many Polish artists were educated in the West, including Paris, Munich and Rome. On the other hand, the position of Polish artists is increasing, especially in the second half of the 19th century, mainly in the Russian and Austrian partition; during the period of Galician autonomy, Krakow became a kind of art center. In architecture, after the twilight of classicism around the 1830s, historicism dominates, followed by eclecticism and Art Nouveau. In all three annexations, a division of historicist styles adapted to the function of the buildings was adopted. The return to medieval forms (Neo-Romanism and Neo-Gothic) is seen mainly in sacred architecture, to which elements of sculpture and painting are subordinated. In the case of secular buildings, Neo-Renaissance forms were adopted mainly in schools, official buildings (the town hall in Opole) and scientific centers (the edifice of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow), which was intended as a reference to the humanism of the Renaissance era. The Neo-Baroque style was often used to construct residential buildings (including the Kronenberg Palace in Warsaw) and villas of pensioners and entrepreneurs (Fritz Heroldt villa in Bydgoszcz, Rost villa in Bielsko-Biała). An example of neoclassicism is the Grand Theater in Poznan. In the era of capitalism, many villas and palaces of factory owners are built, as well as numerous workers’ settlements (including Biskupice, Kaufhaus, Giszowiec Nikiszowiec in Silesia), and artistry includes industrial architecture and public buildings. As a result of industrialization, there is a rapid urbanization not only of former cities (Bytom), but also new urban centers with buildings of a workers’ character (Lodz, Zyrardow, Katowice). In addition, sacred architecture has developed. In the East German territories, including the Prussian partition, architects such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Friedrich August Stüler (Greater Poland), Alexis Langer, Ludwig Schneider (Silesia) realized their work. In the Russian partition Jozef Pius Dziekoński, Konstantin Wojciechowski led the way, while in the Austrian partition Feliks Księżarski, Teodor Talowski, Jan Sas-Zubrzycki. With the progress of Romanticism and historicism, architects created new stylistic trends (Vistula-Baltic Gothic, Vistula style) that were related to the search for a national style.

Romanticism embraced mainly painting, whose main representatives were Piotr Michałowski, Henryk Rodakowski and Artur Grottger, often taking up national liberation themes. Artists combining romantic and realistic themes were Maksymilian Gierymski and, above all, Jan Matejko. The latter, adopting a historiosophical idea, illustrated in his rich oeuvre all the most important themes from Polish history, often depicting the power of the Polish nation and its famous heroes. A representative of academism was Henryk Siemiradzki illustrating episodes from ancient Rome especially during the difficult period for the development of Christianity. Realistic landscape was favored, among others, by Józef Szermentowski, who painted mainly rural and small-town landscapes of the Kielce region and Sandomierz Land, while themes from everyday life were painted by Aleksander Gierymski. His subjects oscillated around the mundane everyday life of people of different social strata, including the lives of peasants, Jews and the Warsaw poor. Artists were quite restrained in their adoption of the Impressionist trend, limiting it to single works (Jozef Pankiewicz, Wladyslaw Podkowiński), or subjective perception of this style (Olga Boznańska).

Young Poland[edit | edit code].

Galician autonomy restored Krakow’s supreme role in culture, science and art, which coincided with the period of Young Poland, whose main representatives were Stanisław Wyspiański, Józef Mehoffer, who created in the spirit of Art Nouveau, and Jacek Malczewski or Witold Wojtkiewicz, who created in the spirit of Symbolism. The period was conducive to the development of individualists such as the portraitist Olga Boznańska, the landscape painters Ferdynand Ruszczyc, Julian Fałat, Jan Stanisławski and his students and the sculptor Xawery Dunikowski, among others, who addressed the so-called problem of the cult of elements. The national liberation theme was particularly well accepted, a good example of which is the sculpted Pochód na Wawel by Wacław Szymanowski. In turn-of-the-century architecture, historicism and eclecticism gave way to modernism, the first manifestation of which was Art Nouveau. In addition to Krakow, works were created in Poznan, Lviv, Bielsko, Katowice, Lodz (townhouses on Piotrkowska Street). Leading architects included Teodor Talowski, Franciszek Mączyński, Mikołaj Tolwiński. Secular construction was preferred, mainly public buildings and tenement houses. The position of artistic craftsmanship increased. The promoters of the new approach to industrial design, interior architecture and applied art included the Polish Applied Arts Society, founded in 1887. In addition to Stanislaw Wyspianski, Jan Szczepkowski and Karol Frycz, among others, were active in this field. The turn of the 19th and 20th centuries saw the progression of stained glass painting. They were produced by, among others, “Krakowski Zakład Witrażów S.G. Żeleński”. Most painters of the Young Poland movement also favored drawing, graphics and posters. The Podhale was dominated by the Zakopane style promoted by Stanislaw Witkiewicz.

Economy in the Polish lands during the Partitions[edit | edit code].

Agriculture[edit | edit code].

The different economic systems in each partition caused regional differences in the level of agricultural development to deepen. These differences are still observable today.

In the Austrian partition, agrarian relations were subject to strong intervention by the state seeking to increase the annuity paid to the state treasury. The changes introduced in the 18th century were progressive in nature and eased the serfdom of peasants. However, after the death of Emperor Joseph II, the favorable trend was reversed.

In the Prussian partition, the guiding principle of the authorities was to extract as much benefit as possible from the lands for the state. The earliest enfranchisement of peasants took place here. Feudal annuities were abolished and peasants were granted land by an edict of 1807.

In the lands of the Russian partition, peasant slavery was abolished, but was not accompanied by enfranchisement. The land was owned entirely by the lords, and acts introduced later promoted the rugging of peasants from the land.

In the Kingdom of Poland, the Agronomic Institute, the first agricultural college in Poland and one of the first in Europe, was founded in Marymont in 1816; the organizer and first director of the institute was Jerzy Beniamin Flatt. In 1861, the Agronomic Institute was closed and later moved to Pulawy, where the Polytechnic and Agricultural and Forestry Institute was established in 1862, which in turn was replaced by the Institute of Farming and Forestry in 1869.

Transportation[edit | edit code].

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the construction of paved roads developed in the Polish lands[28]. Before World War I, the density of paved roads was: in Greater Poland 24 km per 100 km², in Galicia – 30 km, and in the Kingdom of Poland – 7 km[28].

Railroad[edit | edit code].

See more in the article History of railroads in the Polish lands, in the section Times of partition.

See also[edit | edit code].

See multimedia related to the topic: The lands of the Republic of Poland under the partitions

Administrative division of the Roman Catholic Church on Polish lands (1795-1918)

Notes[edit | edit code].

↑ Undoubtedly, the cause was the Decembrist uprising.

Footnotes[edit | edit code].

↑ a b Poland. History. Polish lands under partition, [in:] PWN Encyclopedia [online] [accessed 2016-09-14] .

↑ Groniowski and Skowronek 1987 ↓, p. 118.

↑ RudolfR. Fischer-Wollpert RudolfR., Lexicon of the Popes, BernardB. Białecki (transl.), ZygmuntZ. Mazur (compiled), Krakow: Znak, 1996, pp. 159-160, ISBN 83-7006-437-X, OCLC 750947852 .

↑ Eckert 1990 ↓, p. 6.

↑ Eckert 1990 ↓, p. 7.

↑ Lech Mażewski. The Kingdom of Poland 1815-1874: The rise and fall of the state. “Sejm Review.” 2 (139). s. 51-73.

↑ a b Norman Davies: God’s Playground. A History of Poland. Part 1. 5th ed. Kraków: Znak, 2006. ISBN 978-83-2400-654-0. (English).

↑ Anna Maria Drexlerowa: Urban culture in the Kingdom of Poland. Part 1: 1815-1875: Warsaw, Kalisz, Lublin, Płock. Warsaw: Towarzystwo Opieki nad Zabytkami, 2001, p. 7. ISBN 83-88372-18-1.

↑ Iwona Barańska: Architecture of Kalisz in the Era of the Congress Kingdom. Kalisz: Kalisz Society of Friends of Science, 2002, pp. 55-64. ISBN 83-85638-24-5.

↑ Waclaw Tokarz, The Polish-Russian War of 1830 and 1831, Warsaw 1993, pp. 32-33.

↑ N. Bonwetsch: Russia. In New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vol. X. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1953, p. 121.

↑ Bem 2015 ↓, pp. 13-15.

↑ Bem 2015 ↓, p. 15.

↑ Davies, Moorhouse, p. 297.

↑ Davies, Moorhouse, p. 301.

↑ Norman Davies: God’s Playground. A History of Poland. 5th ed. Kraków: Znak, 2006. ISBN 83-2400-654-0. (English).

↑ Norman Davies. God’s Games. History of Poland, Cracow 2002, p. 51.

↑ Stanisław Grodziski Historia ustroju społeczno-politycznego Galicji 1771-1848, Wrocław 1971.

↑ God’s Playground A History of Poland: Volume II: 1795 to the Present. Oxford University Press, February 24, 2005. pp. 106-108. [accessed 2013-04-08]. (English).

↑ Andrzej Chojnowski, Jan J. Bruski, Ukraine, Trio Publishing House, Warsaw 2006.

↑ [1].

↑ Tadeusz Chrzanowski: Borderlands, or Areas of Longing, Wydawnictwo Literackie Kraków 2010, ISBN 978-83-08-04336-3.

↑ Janusz Tazbir: Polish language and national identity. s. 12.

↑ Alina Witkowska: The literature of Romanticism. Warsaw: PWN, 1987, pp. 5-23. ISBN 83-01-05357-7.

↑ Dictionary of literary terms. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im Ossolińskich, 1998, pp. 482-483. ISBN 83-04-04417-X.

↑ Henryk Markiewicz: Literature of Positivism. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2000, p. 5. ISBN 83-01-12277-3.

↑ Henryk Markiewicz: Positivism. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2004. ISBN 83-01-13849-1.

↑ a b Janusz Kaliński: Economic history of the 19th and 20th centuries. p. 105.

Bibliography[edit | edit code].

Marian Eckert: Historia Polski 1914-1939. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne, 1990. ISBN 83-02-04044-4. Krzysztof Groniowski, Jerzy Skowronek: Historia Polski 1795-1914. Warsaw: 1987. ISBN 83-02-02788-X.

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