History of Poland (1795-1831)

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This article from 2013-02 needs to verify the information provided: It should be split with the entry History of Poland (1795-1807) because some of it is duplicated, it is better to merge the entries into one History of Poland (1795-1914).Reliable sources should be provided, preferably in the form of bibliographic footnotes.Some or even all of the information in the article may be false. As devoid of sources can be challenged and removed. Once the imperfections have been eliminated, the {{Develop}} template should be removed from this article.

Marcello Bacciarelli, Granting of a constitution to the Duchy of Warsaw by Napoleon I, 1809-1811

Polish History (1795-1831) – the history of Poland from the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and the abdication of Stanislaw August Poniatowski until the fall of the November Uprising (1831), as a result of which the Kingdom of Poland lost its autonomy.

This period of Polish history under the partitions included the formation of the Polish Legions in Italy, the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland, the activities of the first underground organizations and the outbreak of the November Uprising and, as a result, to the formation of the Great Emigration and underground activities.

Table of contents

1 Fall of the Republic

1.1 The fate of Poles after the fall of the Polish state 1.2 The policy of the partitioners toward the conquered Polish lands 1.3 The situation of the Church after the Third Partition of Poland 1.4 The first conspiratorial plots in the country

2 Polish military organizations abroad in the years 1797-1807 3 The Duchy of Warsaw 4 The Polish question at the Congress of Vienna 5 The November Uprising 6 Footnotes 7 Bibliography

Fall of the Republic[edit | edit code].

The defeat of the uprising led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko and the Third Partition of Poland contributed to the fall of the Republic. The defeat of the Kosciuszko Uprising was sealed after the defeat of the insurgent army at Maciejowice on October 10, 1794. Despite the efforts of the last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski, another partition of Polish lands between Russia, Prussia and Austria took place.

Separate article: Partitions of Poland.

The king himself confirmed the collapse of the state, leaving Warsaw for Grodno and abdicating at the behest of Tsarina Catherine II. Poland was wiped off the map of Europe. The partitioners, i.e. the new administrators of Polish lands, tried at all costs to erase traces of the existence of the Polish state by, among other things, removing valuable treasures from the Royal Castle in Warsaw and turning Wawel Castle into barracks after the Szczekocin defeat of the Poles. Initially, the partitioners did not have a coherent concept for the division of the Polish state. Prussia wanted Krakow and Sandomierz, which the other partitioning states did not want to agree to. Eventually the disputes were resolved by a convention concluded in St. Petersburg on January 26, 1797. The Third Partition of Poland was explained by the partitioners by the need to suppress the dangerous Polish revolt. This was emphasized by Nikolai Repnin in his manifesto of December 28, 1794:

The cunning of those yeomen who dared to rise up against the security and tranquility of their homeland, committed all kinds of tyrannical deeds and raised arms against the Russian army, forced the Most Gracious Imperatoress against her will to draw her sword to protect the borders of her Empire and to relieve rebellion in her adjoining countries.

Fate of the Poles after the collapse of the Polish state[edit | edit code].

Poles, among them people associated with the uprising, had to leave the country or were arrested. The main centers of post-insurrection emigration were Sweden, Turkey, Italy and France. The leaders of the uprising (Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Ignacy Potocki, Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski, Andrzej Kapostas, Jan Kilinski and Stanislaw Fiszer) were sent to the Petropavlovsk fortress in St. Petersburg. Insurgent soldiers were conscripted into the Russian army. Many of them also ended up in Siberia (e.g., Ignacy Jozef Dzialynski) or Kamchatka (e.g., Ignacy Kopeć). Hugo Kołłątaj and Józef Zajączek were imprisoned by the Austrians in the Olomouc fortress. Stanisław Małachowski, General Antoni Józef Madaliński and Józef Niemojewski were also imprisoned. Jan Henryk Dabrowski remained at large, trying to convince Frederick William II to create a Polish-Prussian state headed by a member of the Hohenzollern dynasty. As a result of the failure of these talks, he joined the Polish emigration in Paris. In turn, the nephew of the last king of Poland, Jozef Poniatowski, stayed in Warsaw, where he lived in the Pod Blachą Palace, leading a lavish life. In exile in Paris were Jozef Wybicki, Franciszek Barss, Jozef Wielhorski and Jozef Sulkowski, Napoleon’s adjutant. In Italy were Michal Oginski, Stanislaw Mokronowski and Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski. Poles formed two emigration centers: Agency and Deputation. The Agency, headed by Wybicki and Bars, sought assistance in the Polish cause from European countries. The Deputation aimed at an uprising, and with it a social revolution.

Partitioners’ policy towards conquered Polish lands[edit | edit code].

In Poland, the partitioners tried to justify their right to Polish lands through acts of homage by the Polish population, often unaware of their actions. The fall of Poland contributed to the European imbalance, and the involvement of Central European monarchs in Poland allowed France to achieve major successes, confirmed by the Peace of Basel in 1795. The borders dividing the Republic were drawn by drawing lines on a map. The internal market formed under Casimir the Great based on age-old trade routes collapsed. The powers treated Polish lands as colonies. The new powers confiscated and took the estates of many Poles and settled their countrymen on them (e.g., Frederick William II wanted to create a strong layer of junkers on Polish lands in order to control the newly conquered lands). New administrative systems and changes in the naming of individual lands were introduced: the provinces taken by Russia were called the Western Territories, Austria called its conquest the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and Western Galicia (lands incorporated in 1795). Prussia formed East Prussia from Polish lands, which included Warmia, West Prussia with Gdansk as its capital, and South Prussia with Poznan as its capital. Warsaw became a provincial city. the Siewierz land was incorporated directly into Silesia. The new administration was made up of people seeking to gain as much benefit as possible from their ability to administer the newly conquered lands. The Polish nobility lost their political rights. Poles who cooperated with the partitioners were condemned to contempt. People associated with the haggard party did not particularly benefit from the partition. They disappeared from the political scene (including Szczęsny Potocki, Seweryn Rzewuski, Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Adam Poniński).

Situation of the Church after the Third Partition of Poland[edit | edit code].

The Polish lands after the collapse of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth passed under the rule of countries with different religious status. In the Russian Empire, Orthodoxy was the ruling religion. Catholicism had the title of tolerated religion, as in the Kingdom of Prussia, where Protestantism was the main religion. Only in the Austrian Empire did Catholicism have the status of the ruling religion, even so the Polish clergy did not gain any advantages from this. The tsarate pursued a policy of subordinating the Roman Catholic Church directly to its authority, which was to be served by the nomination of Bishop Stanislav Bohush-Sierzencewicz as metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in Russia. The Uniate Church, established by the Union of Brest in 1596 as an alternative to Orthodoxy in the eastern areas of the multinational Republic, began to come under control in the Russian partition. Resistance from Greek Catholic Metropolitan Yazon Smogorzewski helped nothing, as Russia sought to convert the Uniates to Orthodoxy. In the Prussian partition, although there was freedom of religion, the Catholic Church was subjected to control, and contacts with Rome were only possible with the help of Prussian diplomacy. Among the entourage of Prussian King Frederick William II, there were plans to move the image of the Queen of the Polish Crown from Czestochowa to Krakow. Austria acted differently: the political freedom of the Church and all contacts with Rome were restricted. Documents and bulls issued by the Pope had to be confirmed by state authorities. Emperor Joseph II, as part of his reforms, abolished many monasteries and limited the Church’s income. Smaller but significant changes were also made (for example, the verse of the Loretto litany Queen of the Polish Crown pray for us was changed to Queen of Galicia and Lodomeria pray for us).

First conspiratorial plots in the country[edit | edit code].

After the Third Partition of Poland, and even immediately after the collapse of the Kosciuszko Insurrection, conspiratorial organizations were formed to launch an uprising and establish a republic based on democratic principles. As early as 1793, in Galicia, the creators of the Charta Leopoldina project put forward the idea of resolving the Polish question by appointing a Habsburg to the Polish throne. These plans were not realized in view of the collapse of the insurrection. On January 6, 1796, with the Prussian army leaving Krakow, a confederation was formed there. Its program was based on armed struggle in alliance with France and Turkey against Austria. Karol Kniaziewicz was to become the leader of the new uprising. To this end, a Central Assembly was formed with its headquarters in Lviv, headed by Pius Raciborski. The centralization established contacts with the émigré Deputation and clandestine organizations in the other partitions. In Greater Poland, Erazm Mycielski carried out his activities, in Warsaw and Vilnius the priest Faustyn Ciecierski. The only armed force of the organization was Joachim Deniska’s unit, which had vague support from France and Turkey. Deniska was assisted by Ksawery Dabrowski, nicknamed “Powala,” who soon went over to the Russian side. In March 1797, the Act of National Uprising was proclaimed. Deniska’s emissaries promoted the slogan Who loves the fatherland, let him go to Wallachia. Deniski’s ambitious plans were thwarted by the peace of Leoben. Nevertheless, he took up the armed struggle, suffering defeat on June 30, 1797 at Dobronovce. The defeat caused the collapse of the movement. Centralization ceased to exist. The intentions of the Lviv organization were continued in Podlasie by Franciszek Gorzkowski, conducting agitation among the peasantry. In his pamphlets he proved his superiority over the nobility and the power of the partitioner. He sought to create an army composed of former insurgents and peasants. These plans in the face of arrests were not realized.

The outbreak of the uprising was also planned in Pomerania in Gdansk, establishing a union under Bartholdi as a protest of the population against Prussian rule in the city, which caused bad feelings. Warsaw was not affected by the arrests. Erazm Mycielski, Alojzy Orchowski, Antoni Kriegier and others were active there. In 1798, the Society of Polish Republicans was formed there, aiming to rebuild Poland with a system based on that of the United States and France. The organization did not seek a quick uprising, and over time, from 1801, it ceased to play a more serious political role.

Polish military organizations abroad in 1797-1807[edit | edit code].

Polish Legions in Italy (1797-1807)

Danube Legion (1799-1802)

Vistula Legion (1808-1814)

Polish-Italian Legion (1807-1808)

Legions of the Duchy of Warsaw (1806/1807-1809)

Northern Legions (1806-1808)

Separate article: Polish history (1795-1807).

Duchy of Warsaw[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Duchy of Warsaw.

In Tilsit in 1807, a peace was signed between France and Russia and Prussia. Under this peace, the Duchy of Warsaw was created. On July 22, 1807, Napoleon proclaimed the Constitution. The Duchy became a constitutional monarchy with Saxon King Frederick Augustus I on the throne. The principality covered 104,000 square kilometers, with a population of 2.6 million. The ruler had the following powers: executive power, legislative initiative, appointed the government, established and dismissed state administrative officers, and appointed senators. Legislative power was exercised by a bicameral parliament. The Senate consisted of bishops, provincial governors and castellans, initially six in number, and from 1809 ten. The parliamentary chamber consisted of 60 deputies, 100 after 1809, elected at noble assemblies, and 40 deputies, 66 after 1809. Serfdom of peasants was abolished by a constitution proclaiming equality before the law. Participation in communal assemblies was limited by a property censor, but people of merit to the country could be included. Nobles and burghers sat in parliament on equal footing. A modified Napoleonic Code was introduced under the constitution. Civil and criminal courts were separated and the Court of Appeals in Warsaw was established. Equality of all before the law was established. All offices could be held only by Polish citizens, and all documents were written in Polish. The territory of the duchy was enlarged in 1809 after the signing of the Peace of Schönbrunn. Under its terms, the lands of the Third Austrian Partition and the Zamosc district were annexed to the duchy. The joint property of the duchy and Austria was to be the Wieliczka salt mine. The principality’s army numbered 100,000 soldiers in the Russian campaign, but 70,000 soldiers of the principality’s army were killed. After Napoleon’s defeat at Leipzig in 1813 and at Waterloo in 1815, the Duchy disappeared from the map of Europe.

The Polish case at the Congress of Vienna[edit | edit code].

Prussia and Russia concluded a special treaty on May 3, 1815, which proclaimed, among other things, that the Poles, subjects of both counter-parties, would receive institutions to ensure the preservation of their nationality according to the forms of political system each government deemed appropriate[1].

Russia received most of the lands of the former Duchy of Warsaw in accordance with the decision of the Congress of Vienna.

Prussia received part of Greater Poland, in the area of which the Grand Duchy of Posen was established, with an area of 29,000 square kilometers. The Free City of Cracow (area of 1164 square kilometers) was ruled by the three partitioners.

The Kingdom of Poland, created by them, is commonly referred to as “Kongresowka”. The area of Kongresowka was 127,000 square kilometers. Tsar Alexander I gave it a constitution, bypassing the parliament. The Kingdom was bound to Russia by a personal union, and had an army, administration, law and its own monetary and educational system. The king (tsar) was untouchable, controlled the executive, and the army was subordinate to him. The tsar also appointed a governor to replace him in his absence. Also to the tsar belonged the legislative initiative, only he could propose new laws to the parliament. He had the right to issue decrees without parliament, the right to veto parliamentary resolutions and the right to convene and dissolve parliament. The body of executive power was the Council of State, which consisted of the General Assembly of the Council of State and the Administrative Council. The Administrative Council, consisting of ministers, was an advisory body to the king and governor. The limited independence of the Kingdom was evidenced by the absence of a foreign affairs committee, as diplomacy belonged to the tsar. The General Assembly of the Council of State consisted of members of the Administrative Council, as well as state councilors and registrars. The Diet consisted of the King, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate, which consisted of 64 senators, included bishops, governors and castellans. The parliamentary chamber consisted of deputies, of whom there were 77, and deputies (51). The term of office for senators, deputies and deputies was six years.

November Uprising[edit | edit code].

Separate article: November Uprising.

It broke out on the night of November 29-30, 1830. Jozef Chłopicki became the first dictator. The first skirmishes, namely at Stoczek, Dobr, Wawer and Bialoleka, proved the high combat value of the insurgents. On February 25, 1831, the battle of Grochow was fought. The Polish troops resisted, but as a result of the enemy’s 2-fold superiority they had to retreat. The Polish troops suffered their greatest defeat at Ostrołęka as a result of Jan Skrzynecki’s actions. On September 8 the capital capitulated. In October 1831, the last troops of the insurgents crossed into Prussia, where they were disarmed and interned and capitulated before the Russian army.

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