History of Poland (1572-1697)
Administrative division of the First Republic in 1619
Density of the urban network in the provinces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth circa 1650
Estates of Polish magnate families
Act of the Warsaw confederation 1573
The power of the Republic at its zenith. Golden freedom. Election of the R.P. 1573, painting by Jan Matejko from 1889
Henry III of Valois, portrait attributed to François Quesnel, 1580-1586
Escape of Henry of Valois from Poland, painting by Artur Grottger from 1860
Stefan Batory, portrait painted by Martin Kober after 1583
Anna Jagiellonka, portrait by Marcin Kober from 1595
The Republic in 1582
Batory at Pskov, painting by Jan Matejko from 1872
Sigismund III Vasa, portrait by Marcin Kober from around 1590
Reconstruction of the royal ensign of Sigismund III Vasa, according to a representation on a Stockholm roll from the 17th century
Skarga’s Sermon, painting by Jan Matejko from 1864
Polish-Swedish Union 1592-1599
Battle of Kircholm in 1605, painting by Pieter Snayers from the 1720s
Battle of Klushino in 1610, painting by Szymon Bohuszowicz from around 1620
The Shuisky tsars at the Warsaw Sejm, painting by Jan Matejko from 1892
Battle of Cecora, painting by Witold Piwnicki from 1878
Ladislaus IV Vasa in a painting by Peter Paul Rubens from 1624
Danzig 12 ducat medal, minted in 1637 to commemorate the victories of Ladislaus IV Vasa over Russia, Sweden and Turkey
Portrait of Jan II Casimir Vasa by Daniel Schulz before 1667
The Republic in 1648
Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Tuhaj-bej near Lviv, painting by Jan Matejko from 1885
Lvov Vows of Jan Kazimierz, painting by Jan Matejko
The Republic in 1660
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, painting by an unknown Polish painter from the 17th century
Jan III Sobieski, portrait from the workshop of Daniel Schultz, circa 1674
Jan Sobieski at Vienna, painting by Jan Matejko from 1882-1883
The Republic in 1686
History of Poland in 1572-1697 – history of Poland during the reign of the electoral rulers of the Republic in 1572-1697.
During this period, the Republic reached the maximum territorial extent in its history, amounting to 990,000 km² in 1634. Between 1592 and 1599 there was a Polish-Swedish union. In 1610, the armies of the Commonwealth conquered Moscow; in 1611, the homage of the dethroned Moscow tsar before King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland took place in Warsaw. His son Wladyslaw IV Vasa was at the same time king of Poland, grand duke of Lithuania, elected and titular Russian tsar and titular king of Sweden. In the mid-17th century, however, Poland’s international position was undermined by the outbreak of the Khmelnytsky uprising in 1648, Russian intervention on the side of the Cossacks and the outbreak of the Polish-Russian War in 1654 and the Swedish invasion in 1655. The weakened state fell victim to a Turkish-Tatar invasion in 1672. The victory of Jan III Sobieski’s troops at the relief of Vienna in 1683 covered the Polish arms with international fame.
However, the political system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth eroded in the mid-17th century. The aspiration of King Jan II Casimir Vasa and his wife Ludwika Maria Gonzaga to strengthen monarchical power through the introduction of vivente rege elections led to a reaction from the magnates, who used the nobility, falling into an increasing client-type dependence on them.
During this period, the development of the Polish economy, based largely on the productive activities of the nobility’s manors, using the labor of serf peasants, made the Republic in the early 17th century a supplier of grain, cattle, timber, hemp, etc. to Central Europe. In the face of the price revolution, favorable terms of trade led to a strengthening trend of exports of raw materials and imports of finished goods. In 1618, a maximum of 200,000 lasht of grain was exported through Gdansk.
This period marks the development of Baroque art in Poland, covered by royal patronage. There was a development of Polish Baroque literature, many outstanding composers of Baroque music worked in the Republic. Many world-class architects, builders, painters, sculptors and stucco artists were active in the country. Many ecclesiastical monarchical, clerical and |magnate foundations were created.
However, the wars in the middle of the 17th many dealt a blow to the urbanization of the country, there was a decline in the urban population, the process of agrarianization of cities was evident, many centers including, among others, private cities became mere hinterlands of magnate latifundia.
At the same time it was the time of the victory of Counter-Reformation in Poland, the introduction of Jesuit education in the country. The Catholic Church, after the conclusion of the Union of Brest in 1596, gradually expanded its holdings by pulling the Orthodox population to its side. Despite instances of religious intolerance, the situation of dissenters in the Republic was still better than their position in Western Europe.
A phenomenon in this period was the ideology of noble Sarmatism, which is considered a coherent and surprisingly flexible set of family, social and national values.
Separate articles: Baroque Art in Poland, Baroque Architecture in Poland, Polish Literature – Baroque, Sarmatism and Polish Magnatry.
Table of contents
1 Election of 1573 2 Reign of Henry III Valois 3 Election of 1575.
4 Reign of Stefan Batory
4.1 The Republic’s war with Gdansk 4.2 The Polish-Russian war of 1577-1582 4.3 Domestic politics
5 Election in 1587.
6 Reign of Sigismund III Vasa
6.1 Civil war in the Commonwealth 1587-1588 6.2 Polish-Swedish union 6.3 Union of Brest 6.4 Cossack uprisings 6.5 Intervention in Wallachia 6.6 Polish-Swedish war (1600-1611) 6.7 Civil war in the Commonwealth 1606-1609 6. 8 Dmitry 6.9 Polish-Russian War 1609-1618 6.10 Polish-Swedish War 1617-1618 6.11 Polish-Turkish War 1620-1621 6.12 Polish-Swedish War 1621-1626 6.13 Polish-Swedish War 1626-1629
7 Election in 1632.
8 Reign of Wladyslaw IV Vasa
8.1 Polish-Russian war 1632-1634 8.2 Truce in Sztumska Village
9 Election in 1648.
10 Reign of John II Casimir Vasa
10.1 Chmielnicki Uprising 10.2 Polish-Russian War 1654-1667 10.3 Swedish Deluge 1655-1660 10.4 Lubomirski’s Rokosz
11 Election in 1669
12 The reign of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
12.1 Polish-Turkish war 1672-1676
13 Election in 1674.
14 Reign of John III Sobieski
14.1 Baltic policy 14.2 Polish-Turkish war 1683-1699
15 Notes 16 Footnotes 17 Bibliography
Election of 1573[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Election viritim, Warsaw Confederation (1573), Election 1573, Articles of Henrykow and Pacta conventa.
Sigismund II Augustus, the last Jagiellon on the Polish throne, renounced his hereditary rights in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569 in the Union of Lublin, so after his death on July 7, 1572, the Republic faced its first free election. Senators were in favor of the Habsburg candidacy of Archduke Ernest. However, it was lost in the face of resistance from the multitude of nobles, who, thanks to Jan Zamoyski, were given the opportunity to elect the ruler viritim. It was agreed that only the Primate of Poland, as interrex, could, during an interregnum, convene conventions, appoint and crown a king, who would be proclaimed by the Grand Marshal. To avoid religious feuds, the nobility passed the Warsaw Confederation Act at the Convocation Sejm on January 28, 1573, guaranteeing religious peace. The election brought together some 50,000 nobles, including 10,000 Mazovian nobles, in the village of Kamień near Warsaw. Ultimately, the anti-German resentments of the nobility prevailed and French Prince Henry d’Anjou, brother of French King Charles IX of Valois, was elected king of Poland on May 11, 1573. The signed obligations of the elect were put into the form of a pacta conventa. The Articles of Henricki, which were later sworn to by every newly elected king of Poland, established the main principles of the Republic’s political system: the ruler would convene the Sejm every 2 years for 6 weeks; he could marry with the consent of the Senate; he would retain the Warsaw Confederation; he could conduct messenger services and conclude treaties with the advice of senators-in-residence, appointed by the Sejm for 2 years. A popular movement could only be enacted by the Sejm and conducted by the king, only in the country, not abroad.
Reign of Henry III Valois[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Henry III Valois.
Henry performed the oath of office at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris on September 10, 1573. The ruler’s arrival in the country was followed by his coronation on February 21, 1574. During the celebrations in honor of the new monarch, a dispute took place between Samuel Zborowski and Wojnicki castellan Jan Tęczyński, ending with the fatal wounding of Przemysl castellan Andrzej Wapowski. Henry III Valois issued a verdict, shocking the opinion of the nobility, sentencing Samuel Zborowski only to banishment without loss of honor. The ruler continued to promote the Zborowski family of the Jastrzębiec coat of arms, to which he largely owed the Polish throne. The ruler’s seriousness in the country was undermined by the promiscuous lifestyle of his court and by surrounding himself with French advisors.
In order to seize the French throne after the death of his brother Charles IX, Henry fled Krakow on the night of June 18-19, 1574. Deputies sent to France set a deadline of May 12, 1575, by which time Henry was to return to Poland if he wanted to retain his claim to power.
Election in 1575[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Election 1575.
On May 12, 1575, a convention of senators and nobles took place in Stężyca. The subject of the session was the question of recognizing Henry III Valois as king still and the problem of a new election. Those gathered were divided into 3 factions: the French with Primate Jakub Uchański, the Austrian (Rakuski) with Podolia Voivode Mikołaj Mielecki, and the nobility with Stanisław Górka, Mikołaj Firlej and Jan Zamoyski, to whom the Zborowskis leaned. The convention, however, dispersed with nothing in the face of the Tartar invasion of the Republic.
During the election of the year, the Primate nominated Emperor Maximilian II of Habsburg as king of Poland on December 12, 1575. This caused fierce opposition from the circle of knights, the primate was shot at 2 times. On December 15, the leader of the nobility, Mikolaj Sienicki, proclaimed Anna Jagiellonka king, assigning to her as her husband the Duke of Transylvania, Stefan Batory. On January 18, 1576, a rally of Batory’s supporters took place in the mode of a hasty move near Jedrzejow. His supporters captured Krakow and Wawel Castle.
Reign of Stefan Batory[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Stefan Batory.
On May 1, 1576, Batory was crowned with Anna by the Bishop of Kuyavia Stanislaw Karnkowski. On October 12, 1576, the second-elect Emperor Maximilian II Habsburg died.
The Republic’s war with Danzig[edit | edit code].
Separate article: The Republic’s war with Danzig.
The Danzigers, incited by the Emperor, decided to use the split election to undermine the rights of the Commonwealth in the city as defined by the Karnkowski statutes. They sacked Catholic monasteries and demolished the Cistercian abbey in Oliva. At the same time, they began negotiations with the deputies of the Russian Empire, which supported Danzig separatism. Denmark took the side of Gdansk. On April 17, 1577, court hetman Jan Zborowski smashed the Gdansk army in the Battle of Lubiszewo. King Stefan Batory began a siege of Gdansk, diverting Vistula trade through Elblag. This prompted a retaliatory attack by a combined Danzig-Danish fleet on that city. The fighting ended with the reconciliation of the parties and the payment of a ransom to the king of 200,000 Polish zlotys. At the same time, deputies of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation obtained Batory’s permission for Ansbach Margrave George Frederick Hohenzollern to take guardianship of the mentally ill Prussian Prince Albrecht Frederick Hohenzollern.
Polish-Russian War 1577-1582[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: The Polish-Russian War (1577-1582) and The Truce at the Zapolski Jama.
Taking advantage of the Commonwealth’s engagement at Danzig, Russian Czar Ivan IV the Terrible attacked Inflants, reaching Riga and Revel. Batory conducted 3 victorious campaigns between 1578 and 1581: the Polotsk, Velikoye and Pskov campaigns, forcing the Moscow state to accept a 10-year truce. Russia surrendered Polotsk, seized under Sigismund II Augustus, and almost all of Inflants to the Republic.
Domestic politics[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Chosen Infantry, the Diet of the Four Lands and the Gregorian Calendar.
In 1578, Batory created the Crown Chief Tribunal, the highest court of appeal for the Crown in civil matters, while retaining monarchical jurisdiction in other matters. In 1581, a similar Main Tribunal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was established. The King established the Sejm of the Four Lands, the central body of Jewish self-government in the Crown. In 1578, the Seimas enacted the creation of the Chosen Infantry, consisting of recruits, chosen one each from the 20 patches in the royal lands. In 1579, the ruler gave permission for the Jesuits to establish the Vilnius Academy. In 1582 the Republic adopted the reformed Gregorian calendar.
In domestic politics, the king relied on the chancellor and Grand Hetman of the Crown Jan Zamoyski. He crushed pro-Habsburg opposition, including leading to the conviction and beheading of Samuel Zborowski in 1584.
Election in 1587[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Election of 1587.
During the 1587 election, Jan Zamoyski’s supporters (the black circle[a]) elected Sigismund Vasa, nephew of Queen Anne Jagiellon, as king. Supporters of the Zborowskis made the election of Archduke Maximilian III Habsburg, brother of Emperor Rudolf II Habsburg.
Reign of Sigismund III Vasa[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Sigismund III Vasa.
Civil war in the Republic 1587-1588[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Treaty of Bytom-Bedzin.
To enable Sigismund Vasa’s coronation, Zamoyski occupied Cracow. A convention of nobles near Wislica enacted a general move. The army of Archduke Maximilian invaded the Republic, but the storming of Krakow was repulsed by Jan Zamoyski. This enabled Vasa to be crowned. Zamoyski eventually beat the Austrians at the Battle of Byczyna, taking Archduke Maximilian captive and imprisoning him in Krasnystaw. In March 1589, the parties signed the Treaty of Bytom-Bedzin, in which Maximilian promised to renounce the Polish crown and not to ally with the Russian Tsar.
Polish-Swedish Union[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Polish-Swedish Union, the Battle of Stegeborg and the Battle of Linköping.
After the death of his father John III Vasa in 1592, Sigismund III traveled to Sweden, where he was crowned king of Sweden in Uppsala in 1594. After appointing his uncle Charles IX Sudermanski as regent, the king returned to the country. Sweden, however, made peace with the Russian Empire, which resulted in Sigismund III’s unsuccessful intervention in Sweden in 1598, ending with the loss of his throne.
Union of Brest[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Union of Brest and the Uniate Church in the First Republic.
Sigismund III Vasa, clearly influenced by the Jesuits, sought to remove from the Republic the danger of the subordination of the Orthodox Church to the Moscow Patriarchate, accomplished in 1589. He led to the conclusion of the Union of Brest in 1596 and the establishment of a Uniate Church on the territory of the Republic, recognizing the supremacy of the Holy See.
Cossack uprisings[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: the Kosinsky uprising, the Nalevaya uprising, the Zhmaylya uprising and the Fedorovich uprising.
During the reign of Sigismund III Vasa, the Republic faced several uprisings by Cossacks, incited by Austria.
Intervention in Wallachia[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: The Battle of Şelimbăr, the Battle of Cecora (1595) and the Battle of Bukovo.
Jan Zamoyski, in two expeditions in 1595 and 1600, settled in the Moldavian and Wallachian Hospodardoms the Mohyla hospodars, who were submissive to Poland and polonized.
Polish-Swedish War (1600-1611)[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Polish-Swedish War (1600-1611).
The loss of the Swedish throne caused Sigismund III to seek to provoke a Polish-Swedish conflict by ceding Estonia to the Republic in 1600. The war, which took place on the territory of Inflants, ended with a truce favorable to Poland in 1611.
Civil war in the Republic 1606-1609[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Rokosz Zebrzydowski.
Plans to strengthen royal power through Sigismund III’s rapprochement with the Habsburgs, his close association with the Jesuits caused a reaction from the dissenting nobility, supported by some leaders of the anti-Austrian party in Poland. Although the king’s troops broke the Mikołaj Zebrzydowski’s rebellion with arms, the state’s system did not change.
Dmitry[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Dmitriads.
After the extinction of the native Rurikikovich dynasty in 1598, the Russian Tsardom plunged into the Great Smuta. One of the self-proclaimed claimants to the tsarist throne, Dmitry Samozwaniec I, obtained the help of Polish magnates, married Maryna Mniszchówna and, with the help of their troops, captured Russia in 1605. After the Zebrzydowski revolt ended, its participants joined the ranks of the new Samozwaniec Dmitry II against Tsar Vasily IV Shuisky.
Polish-Russian War 1609-1618[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Polish-Russian War (1609-1618), the Shuisky Homage, the 1611 Diet and the Truce of Dywilin.
Vasily IV Shuisky’s conclusion of an offensive and reprisal treaty with Sweden in 1609, provoked the Russo-Polish war. Hetman Stanislav Zolkiewski beat the combined Russian-Swedish army at the Battle of Klushino in 1610, captured Moscow and led to the election of Prince Vladislav as Tsar of Russia by the Moscow boyars. Brought before the Polish king as a prisoner of war in 1611, Tsar Vasily IV bowed to him. An anti-Polish uprising broke out in Moscow, culminating in the surrender of the Polish Kremlin crew in 1612. After Prince Wladislaw’s unsuccessful attempt to capture Moscow in 1617, the war ended with the Truce of Dywilin, leaving Smolensk, the Seversk and Chernihiv lands in Polish hands.
Polish-Swedish War 1617-1618[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Polish-Swedish War (1617-1618).
In 1617, taking advantage of the Commonwealth’s involvement, the Swedes struck Inflants.
Polish-Turkish War 1620-1621[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Treaty of Busza, Battle of Humenne, Polish-Turkish War (1620-1621) and Peace of Chocim.
Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski was against starting a war with the Ottoman Empire, so in 1617 he concluded the Treaty of Busza, in which the Republic relinquished sovereignty over the Moldavian Empire and the Wallachian Empire. However, Sigismund III Vasa’s policy of rapprochement with the Habsburgs, the sending of Polish foxhunters to the relief of Vienna in 1619 and repeated arbitrary expeditions by Cossacks led to the outbreak of a new war with Turkey. The war ended with the peace signed at Chocim in 1621, restoring the Polish-Turkish border from the Jagiellonian era.
Polish-Swedish War 1621-1626[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Polish-Swedish War (1621-1626) and Armistice of Mithava.
The new Swedish King Gustav II Adolf took advantage of Poland’s involvement in the war with Turkey and attacked the Republic in 1621. The Swedish fleet disembarked at Parnava in Inflants, the Swedish army struck Riga. In 1622, the parties concluded a truce at Mitava. In 1625, the Swedes struck the rest of Inflants.
Polish-Swedish War 1626-1629[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Polish-Swedish War (1621-1626).
In 1626, the Swedes carried out a landing at Pilawa in Ducal Prussia, later capturing 16 towns in Royal Prussia located in the triangle of the Vistula and Nogat rivers. The war ended with the Armistice of Altmark in 1629, unfavorable to the Republic.
Election in 1632[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Election of 1632.
The only candidate for the crown was Sigismund III Vasa’s son Prince Ladislaus, the elected Russian tsar, who had inherited his father’s title of King of Sweden. Vladislav’s election was signed by 3543 nobles.
Reign of Ladislaus IV Vasa[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Ladislaus IV Vasa.
Polish-Russian war 1632-1634[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Polish-Russian War (1632-1634) and Peace of Polanov.
Vladislav IV forced the surrender of the Moscow army at besieged Smolensk in 1634. The armies of the Commonwealth made a rally deep into the Russian Empire. In the Peace of Polanov in 1634, Tsar Mikhail Romanov ceded the Smolensk, Seversk and Chernihiv lands to the Commonwealth forever, and relinquished claims to Inflants, Courland, Estonia, Lithuanian Rus and Polish Rus. Vladislav, for his part, renounced the title of Czar of Russia.
Armistice in Shtumskaya Village[edit | edit code].
Separate article: the truce in Shtumskaya Village.
In 1635, at Shtumskaya Village, Ladislaus IV extended the truce with Sweden for 26 years.
Election in 1648[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Election 1648.
On November 20, 1648, the Primate proclaimed Jan II Casimir Vasa, the titular king of Sweden, as king of Poland.
Reign of Jan II Casimir Vasa[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Jan II Casimir Vasa.
Khmelnytsky uprising[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Khmelnitsky Uprising.
The election of John II Casimir took place in the face of an uprising of Cossacks led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky, who was supported by the Tatars. The new king’s relief expedition to Zbarazh, which was besieged by Tatar-Cossack troops, ended with the signing of the Zborov settlement. In 1651, John Casimir beat the Tatar-Cossack army in the battle of Beresteczko, famous throughout Europe. However, the following year the Cossacks arranged a slaughter of Polish captives after the Poles lost the Battle of Batoh. In the treaty of Zhvaniaetz in 1653, the Commonwealth succeeded in drawing the Tatars away from Khmelnytsky. The latter, however, found a new protector in Russia, concluding with it in 1654 the Pereyaslav Settlement, by virtue of which Ukraine, overrun by the Cossacks, surrendered to the Russian Tsar.
Polish-Russian War 1654-1667[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Polish-Russian War (1654-1667).
This gave Russia a pretext for war, three Moscow armies struck at the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the fourth at Ukraine. Among other things, the Russians captured Smolensk and Mogilev, and slaughtered Vilnius.
Swedish Deluge 1655-1660[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Swedish Deluge.
The weakening of the Commonwealth was taken advantage of by King Charles X Gustav of Sweden, whose armies struck the Commonwealth from Pomerania and Inflants. The Swedes, led into Greater Poland by the traitor Hieronim Radziejowski, forced the Greater Polish Commonwealth to capitulate at Ujście. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania surrendered to the Swedes by signing the Kiejdan settlement. Russian and Swedish armies flooded the Commonwealth; Polish troops resisted in a patch of the Ruthenian province with Lviv. King John Casimir II Vasa went to Silesia to Opole, which was leased by the Vasa family. After the heroic defense of Jasna Gora, a nationwide anti-Swedish confederation of Tyszowce was formed in late 1655. John Casimir returned from Silesia and took his Lvov vows in April 1656. At that time, the Republic was betrayed by its fief by the Elector of Brandenburg and Prince Frederick William I of Prussia. Russia, however, concluded a truce with the Commonwealth at Nehemiah in 1656, and a turn of events favorable to the Commonwealth resulted in an alliance with Austria and its sending of armed reinforcements. The Poles repulsed the invasion of the Transylvanian army of George II Rakoczy in 1657. In the ensuing situation, Brandenburg withdrew from the war. The Treaties of Welawsko-Bydgos, signed with the Elector in 1657, stipulated that the Republic would lose its fiefdom of Ducal Prussia. In 1658, Denmark joined the war against Sweden, with Stefan Czarniecki’s army coming to its aid. In 1658 the Sejm passed a resolution to banish Arians, accused of favoring the Swedes, from the country. After the death of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Hadziaka settlement was concluded with the new Cossack leader, which provided for the creation of a new third member of the Republic: The Principality of Rus. Finally, in 1660, the war with Sweden ended with the Peace of Oliva, by which the Republic retained the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and part of Inflants.
The resumed war with Russia brought the Commonwealth the recapture of Vilnius, Grodno and Humania. The war ended with the Andrusov Armistice in 1667, by virtue of which the Commonwealth surrendered Smolensk, Zadnieper and Kiev for 2 years.
Lubomirski’sokosz[edit | edit code].
Separate article: Lubomirski’sokosz.
Queen Louisa Maria’s attempt to strengthen royal power by floating vivente rege election projects led to a revolt of the noble masses in 1665 in a rokosz, whose leader was Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. The nobility split into two warring camps: the pro-Franco royal camp and the noble camp supported by Brandenburg and Austria. After a series of battles that were victorious for the royalists, there was a reconciliation with the king, who finally abandoned his plans and abdicated at the Diet in 1668.
Election in 1669[edit | edit code].
The multitudes of the noble masses elected the son of the Cossack conqueror Jeremi Michał Korybut as king of Poland.
Reign of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki[edit | edit code].
Polish-Turkish war 1672-1676[edit | edit code].
Separate articles: Golab Confederation and the Szczebrzeszyn Confederation.
The election of a candidate with close ties to Austria caused a reaction from the Ottoman Empire, whose troops, along with the Tatars, invaded the southeastern lands of the Republic. With the Peace of Buczacz, the Commonwealth briefly became a dependent state of the Ottoman Empire, ceded part of the southeastern provinces to Turkey, and agreed to pay a tribute of 22,000 thalers a year. Opposing political camps formed the Golab and Szczebrzeszyn confederations. The Pacification Sejm of 1673 reconciled the two sides, and a resumption of the war with Turkey was passed. Hetman Jan Sobieski beat the Turkish army at the Battle of Chocim.
Election in 1674[edit | edit code].
See also category: Election 1674.
The noble masses, discouraged by the defeat of Wisniowiecki’s pro-Habsburg policies, elected Jan Sobieski, favored by France, as king of Poland after his death.
Reign of Jan III Sobieski[edit | edit code].
Baltic policy[edit | edit code].
To oppose Brandenburg’s rapprochement with Austria in 1675, Sobieski signed a secret treaty with France at Yavorov. The king intended to annex Ducal Prussia to the Republic. French-backed plans to pacify Turkey with Poland were thwarted by a new incursion by Ottoman forces. France brokered a truce at Zhuravna in 1676, but Brandenburg went over to the French side, which meant Sobieski now had to seek an agreement with the Habsburgs.
Polish-Turkish War 1683-1699[edit | edit code].
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth concluded an offensive and resilient alliance with Austria in 1683. Sobieski’s army rushed to the relief of Vienna, which was besieged by the Turks, winning a brilliant victory over the Ottoman forces. In 1684, the Republic joined the anti-Turkish Holy League. Sobieski’s 1686 expedition to Moldavia, however, ended in failure. The price of winning Russia against the Ottoman Empire, however, was the signing of the unfavorable Treaty of Grzymułtowsk in 1686.