Calendar of Polish history

83 mins read
Leave a comment

Calendar of Polish history – arranged chronologically, from the earliest times to the present, a list of dates and events in Polish history.

Table of contents

1 The earliest times

2 The reign of the Piasts

2.1 Reign of Mieszko I (ca. 960-992) 2.2 Reign of Bolesław Chrobry (992-1025) 2.3 Reign of Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1031) 2.4 Reign of Casimir the Restorer (1034-1058) 2.5 Reign of Bolesław II Szczodry (1058-1079) 2. 6 Reign of Ladislaus I Herman (1079-1102) 2.7 Reign of Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed (1102-1138) 2.8 District breakup (1138-1320) 2.9 Reign of Ladislaus the Short (1320-1333) 2.10 Reign of Casimir the Great (1333-1370)

3 Reign of the Andegawens

4 Reign of the Jagiellons

4.1 Reign of Ladislaus Jagiello (1386-1434) 4.2 Reign of Ladislaus Varna (1434-1444) 4.3 Reign of Kazimierz Jagiellon (1447-1492) 4.4 Reign of Jan Olbracht (1492-1501) 4.5 Reign of Alexander Jagiellon (1501-1506) 4.6 Reign of Sigismund the Old (1506-1548) 4.7 Reign of Sigismund Augustus (1548-1572)

5 Reign of the elected kings

5.1 The interregnum (1572-1573) 5.2 The reign of Henry of Valois (1573-1574) 5.3 The reign of Stefan Batory (1575-1586) 5.4 The reign of Sigismund Vasa (1587-1632) 5.5 The reign of Ladislaus Vasa (1632-1648) 5.6 The reign of John Casimir Vasa (1648-1668) 5.7 The reign of Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki (1669-1673) 5. 8 Reign of Jan III Sobieski (1674-1696) 5.9 Reign of Augustus II the Strong (1697-1704) 5.10 Reign of Stanislaw Leszczynski (1704-1709) 5.11 Reign of Augustus II the Strong (1709-1733) 5.12 War of the Polish Succession and Reign of Augustus III Sas (1733-1763) 5.13 Reign of Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1764-1795)

6 Period of partitions

6.1 The first years of the Partitions (1795-1815) 6.2 The Kingdom of Poland (1815-1918) 6.3 Until the outbreak of the November Uprising (1815-1830) 6.4 The November Uprising (1830-1831) 6.5 The period until the January Uprising (1831-1863) 6.6 The January Uprising (1863-1864) 6.7 Until the outbreak of World War I (1864-1914) 6.8 World War I (1914-1918)

7 The Second Republic

7.1 Democratic Second Republic (1918-1926) 7.2 Sanation rule (1926-1939)

8 World War II (1939-1945)

9 Polish People’s Republic

9.1 The rule of Boleslaw Bierut (1945-1956) 9.2 The rule of Wladyslaw Gomulka (1956-1970) 9.3 The rule of Edward Gierek (1970-1980) 9.4 The last years of communism (1980-1989)

10 The Third Republic

10.1 Transformation (1989-2004) 10.2 Poland in the European Union (after 2004)

11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 Bibliography

Earliest times[edit | edit code].

Separate articles: prehistory and prehistory of the Polish lands.

ca. 500-400 thousand years BC. – The first traces of hunter-gatherers of the Homo erectus species on Polish soil discovered in Trzebnica near Wroclaw[1].

ca. 250-40 thousand years BC. – Neanderthal mustier culture in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland[1].

ca. 38-8.3 thousand BC. – Upper Paleolithic settlement of modern fossil man, hunter[1].

ca. 4,500 BC. – The beginning of the Neolithic period in the Polish lands. Beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry[1]

ca. 1700 BC. – Bronze Age covered the entire area of today’s Poland[1].

ca. 1250 BC. – Development of the Lusatian culture, also known as the ash-field culture, on Polish soil[1].

8th century BC. – The golden age of the Lusatian culture. Its example is the defensive settlement at Biskupin, which was established around 740 BC[1].

4th – 3rd century BC. – The appearance of the Celts in southern Polish lands. Their centers included Ślęża, Łysa Góra and Góra Świętej Anny[1].

1st – 5th century AD. – Influence of Roman civilization on Polish lands[1].

5th – 7th century. – first Slavs settled on the territory of present-day Poland[2].

8th – mid 10th century. – Pomeranians, Kashubians, Lubuszans, Goplans, Polans, Lędzians, Vistula, Mazovians, Prussians inhabited the territory of present-day Poland[2].

ca. 632 – the so-called State of Samon was established[2].

940-941 – in Gniezno, on Lech Hill, the first castle was erected, one of the central strongholds of the Polanian tribe[3].

Reign of the Piasts[edit | edit code].

Mieszko I

Boleslaw the Brave

Mieszko II

Casimir the Restorer

Boleslaw the Bold

Ladislaus the Herman

Boleslaw the Wrymouthed

Ladislaus the Exile

Boleslaw the Curly

Mieszko the Old

Casimir the Just

Leszek the White

Ladislaus the Laskonogi

Henry the Bearded

Conrad of Mazovia

Henry the Pious

Bolesław the Chaste

Przemysł II

Wenceslaus II

Wenceslas III

Ladislaus the Short

Casimir the Great

Separate article: Polish history (until 1138).

Reign of Mieszko I (c. 960-992)[edit | edit code].

963-968 – Mieszko I defeated the western Slavic tribes of Wieleck[2].

965-966 – Jewish merchant Ibrahim ibn Yaakov described the city of “Karako” (Kraków)[2].

966 – Mieszko I married Dobrava[2].

966 – Poland was baptized

968 – Missionary bishop Jordan organized a church diocese in Gniezno[2].

ca. 970 – Mieszko I’s denarii appeared[4].

June 24, 972 – Battle of Cedynia; Mieszko I’s victory over Margrave Hodon[2].

989 – Mieszko I conquered Lesser Poland[2].

990 – armed conflict broke out with Boleslaw II of Bohemia – Mieszko I captured Silesia[2].

ca. 990-992 – the document Dagome iudex was created, in which Mieszko I and his wife Oda ceded their sovereignty to the Holy See[2].

May 25, 992 – Mieszko I died[2].

Reign of Boleslaw the Brave (992-1025)[edit | edit code].

992 – Boleslaw the Brave removed his stepmother Oda and her sons from the country[2].

997 – St. Adalbert’s mission took place[2].

999 – Pope Sylvester II established an archbishopric in Gniezno[2].

March 8-10, 1000 – Gniezno congress: the German Emperor Otto III came on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Adalbert, symbolically crowned Boleslaw the Brave and agreed to establish an independent Polish metropolis in Gniezno and bishoprics in Krakow, Kolobrzeg and Wroclaw[2].

1003 – Boleslaw the Brave occupied Bohemia and Moravia[2].

1004-1005 – first war with Henry II[2].

1007-1013 – second war with Henry II[2].

1015 – January 30, 1018 – third war with Henry II[2].

January 30, 1018 – Peace of Bautzen. By its terms, Milsko, Lusatia and Moravia remained with Poland[2].

1018 – Boleslaw the Brave captured Czerwieńskie Grody and installed his son-in-law Świętopełek on the Ruthenian throne[2].

1025 – Boleslaw Chrobry was crowned.

June 17, 1025 – Boleslaw the Brave died[2].

Reign of Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1031)[edit | edit code].

1031 – rebellion of Bezprym, the elder son of the Brave[2].

1031 – Mieszko II was expelled[2].

1031 – Prince Yaroslav of Kiev captured Chernivtsi Grody, while the German Empire recaptured Milsko and Lusatia[2].

1032 – Mieszko II returned to Poland[2].

1034 – death of Mieszko II[2].

Reign of Casimir the Restorer (1034-1058)[edit | edit code].

ca. 1034 – anti-feudal and anti-Christian popular uprising broke out; Casimir the Restorer was exiled[2].

1039 – Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia conquered Silesia at the expense of Poland[2].

1039 – Casimir the Restorer returned from exile[5].

1039 – Kraków became the new capital of Poland[5].

1050 – Poland regained Silesia[5].

1058 – Casimir the Restorer died[5].

Reign of Boleslaw II the Shy (1058-1079)[edit | edit code].

1069 – Bolesław Szczodry recaptured Czerwieńskie Grody and introduced Izyaslav II to the Kiev throne[5].

December 25, 1076 – the coronation of Boleslaw Szczodry took place[5].

1077 – dispute over investiture ended: emperor Henry IV humiliated himself before Pope Gregory VII at Canossa[5].

1078-1079 – Bishop Stanislaw of Szczepanow was accused of treason and sentenced to death by quartering[6] on the orders of King Boleslaw II[5].

1079 – as a result of a revolt, Boleslaw II fled the country[5].

Reign of Ladislaus I Herman (1079-1102)[edit | edit code].

ca. 1081 – Boleslaw II died in Hungary[5].

1102 – Ladislaus I died – the country was divided between his two sons, Zbigniew (North) and Boleslaus (Lesser Poland)[5].

Reign of Boleslaw III the Wry-mouthed (1102-1138)[edit | edit code].

1103 – Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed set out for Bohemia[5].

1106-1108 – Civil war in Poland: Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed seized the ducal throne and blinded his brother[5].

1109 – under the pretext of defending Zbigniew’s rights, Henry V invaded Poland[5].

ca. 1112-1116 – Gall Anonim wrote down the history of the Piasts until 1113[5].

1113-1119 – Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed’s expedition to Gdansk Pomerania took place[5].

1135 – the congress of Merseburg took place, during which Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed paid fief tribute to Emperor Lotar III and pledged to pay tribute in exchange for maintaining the whole of the Polish state[5].

1136 – the Bull of Gniezno confirmed the independence of the Polish Church[5].

October 28, 1138 – Boleslaw the Wry-mouthed died – as a result of the will of Boleslaw III, Poland was divided into districts[5].

Divisional schism (1138-1320)[edit | edit code].

Separate article: Poland during the period of the district schism.

1138-1146 – Ladislaus II the Exile princeps[5].

1146 – as a result of a revolt of the juniors, Wladyslaw the Exile was expelled, Boleslaw IV the Curly took over the dignity of princeps[5].

1150 – Prince Albrecht the Bear established the Brandenburg March on territories taken from the Swabian Slavs[5].

ca. 1152 – Bishop of Plock Alexander of Malonne founded the Plock doors[5].

1154 – Prince Henry of Sandomierz’s expedition to Jerusalem took place[5].

1157 – Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa’s expedition to Poland to restore the rule of Ladislaus the Exile took place. Boleslaw the Curly paid the emperor a fief tribute[5].

1173-1177 – reign of princeps Mieszko III the Old[5].

1177 – a rebellion of magnates broke out against Mieszko III – Casimir II the Just took the throne[5].

1180 – a convention of the Piast princes was held in Łęczyca[5].

1194 – Casimir the Just died[5].

1195 – the Lords of Małopolska repulsed Mieszko the Old’s expedition against Kraków at Mozgawa[5].

1198 – Mieszko the Old established a settlement with the magnates of Malopolska, under which the prince took over the throne of Kraków[5].

1202 – Mieszko III the Old died. His son Ladislaus III Laskonogi became princeps for a short time, but lost the throne to Leszek the White[5].

1202-1238 – reign of Henry I the Bearded in Silesia[5].

1205-1207 – Wincenty Kadlubek wrote the Chronicle of the Poles[5].

1210 – granting of privileges for the clergy, the so-called Borzykov Privilege.

1211 – Duke Henry the Bearded made the location of Zlotorya under Magdeburg law. It was the first location on Polish soil under German law[7].

1215 – the Wolbórz privilege of the district princes for the clergy was enacted[7].

1220 – the Prussians invaded Mazovia and the Chełmno Land[7].

1222-1223 – Leszek the White, Henry the Bearded and the dukes of Pomerania launched expeditions against the Prussians[7].

1226 – Conrad of Mazovia began negotiations for the settlement of the Teutonic Knights on the Prussian-Masovian border[7].

1227 – a convention of the district princes was held in Gasawa, during which Leszek the White was assassinated[7].

1228 – the Teutonic Order received from Conrad of Mazovia the lease of Chelmno land[7].

1230 – Gregory IX issued a bull confirming the settlement and granting of privileges to the Teutonic Knights[7].

1232-1238 – reign of Henry the Bearded[7].

1232-1234 – the first Polish Franciscan monastery was founded in Wroclaw[7].

1234 – Polish-Teutonic expedition against the Prussians took place; the Teutonic Knights forged the Crusaders’ document, claiming that Conrad of Mazovia had given them all the conquests in Prussia as a donation[7].

1238-1241 – reign of Henry the Pious[7].

1241 – Tartar invasion of Poland[7].

April 9, 1241 – during the battle of Legnica, Henry the Pious was killed[7].

1247 – Conrad of Mazovia died[7].

1248-1255 – a war broke out between the sons of Henry the Pious, which ended with the division of Silesia and Lesser Poland into several principalities[7].

1249-1252 – the Brandenburg March took over the Lubusz land[7].

September 8, 1253 – Pope Innocent IV canonized Stanislaus of Szczepanów[7].

1259-1260 – second Tartar invasion[7].

1267 – Henry the Bearded’s wife, Jadwiga, was canonized by Clement IV[7].

1270-1273 – Polish scientist Witelon published Perspective on mathematics and optical phenomena[7].

1279 – rule of Leszek the Black in Malopolska[7].

1287 – Duke Przemysł II of Greater Poland, Duke Mściwoj II of Gdańsk and Duke Bogusław IV of West Pomerania signed a succession treaty[7].

1288-1289 – Duke Henry IV Probus of Wrocław took over the Cracow throne[7].

1290 – Przemysł II took power in Kraków[7].

1291-1292 – King Wenceslas II of Bohemia conquered Lesser Poland and the Sandomierz lands[7].

1292 – Wenceslas II introduced the office of starosta in the occupied Polish lands[7].

June 25, 1295 – Przemysl II was crowned – a symbolic end to the era of the district split[7].

1296 – Przemysl II was assassinated in Rogozno[7].

1300 – Wenceslas II became king of Poland[7].

1305 – Wenceslas II died, his son Wenceslas III took power[7].

1305 – a rebellion broke out against the rule of the starost and bishop of Krakow Jan Muskata[7].

1306 – Wenceslaus III was assassinated in Olomouc[7].

1306 – Władysław Łokietek, Duke of Kuyavia and Łęczyca, occupied Lesser Poland and Gdansk Pomerania[7].

1308 – Teutonic Knights slaughtered the inhabitants of Gdansk

1309 – Teutonic Knights deceitfully occupied Gdansk Pomerania[8].

1312 – the rebellion of alderman Albert against Ladislaus the Short broke out in Kraków[8].

January 20, 1320 – Władysław Łokietek was crowned in Kraków. Reunification of Poland and the end of the district split[8].

Reign of Ladislaus the Short (1320-1333)[edit | edit code].

1320-1321 – the Polish-Teutonic trial in Inowrocław and Brześć Kujawski took place. The papal court ordered the Teutonic Order to return Gdansk Pomerania and pay compensation. The sentence was not carried out[8].

1325 – Wladyslaw I Lokietek concluded an alliance with the Lithuanian prince Gediminas, which was strengthened by the marriage of the Polish heir to the throne Casimir to Aldona Gediminas[8].

1327-1332 – Polish-Teutonic war, in which the Order’s ally was King John of Luxembourg[8].

1329 – Teutonic Knights invaded Dobrzyń Land[8].

1330 – Felician Zach carried out an unsuccessful assassination attempt on the Hungarian royal couple, allegedly provoked by Casimir the Great’s affair with his daughter Clara[8].

September 27, 1331 – Wladyslaw Lokietek defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Plowce[8].

1332 – Teutonic Knights conquered Kujawy[8].

March 2, 1333 – Wladyslaw Lokietek died[8].

Reign of Casimir the Great (1333-1370)[edit | edit code].

April 25, 1333 – Casimir the Great was crowned at Wawel Cathedral[8].

1335 – in November, a congress was held at Visegrad, in which John of Luxembourg renounced his rights to the Polish crown, in exchange for 20,000 mounds of Prague pennies. During the convention, Poland ceded Gdansk Pomerania to the Teutonic Knights, while the order was ordered to give Kujawy and Dobrzyn lands to Poland[8].

1335 – On November 24, Henry VI the Good died and the Duchy of Wroclaw passed to the Czechs by virtue of an earlier agreement.

1337 – A convention was held in Inowrocław. The Teutonic Order ceded Kujawy and Dobrzyń Land to John of Luxembourg, who gave part of these possessions to Casimir the Great[8].

1339 – a Polish-Teutonic trial was held in Warsaw. As a result of the trial, the Teutonic Order was to give Pomerania and the Chelmno Land to Poland, but did not recognize the verdict[8].

1340 – Casimir the Great’s expedition to Lviv, the beginning of his expansion into Halich Ruthenia[8].

1341 – Casimir the Great and the Luxembourgers formed an alliance[8].

1342 – construction of the Gothic cathedral in Gniezno began[8].

July 8, 1343 – Poland concluded the Peace of Kalisz with the Teutonic Order – Poland regained Kujawy and Dobrzyń Land and relinquished Gdansk Pomerania and Chelmno Land[8].

1348 – Casimir the Great’s unsuccessful expedition to Silesia took place[8].

1354-1355 – Poland concluded treaties with Louis of Hungary concerning the succession to the Polish throne[8].

May 1, 1356 – a treaty between Poland and Bohemia was passed in Prague – Casimir the Great relinquished his rights to Silesia in exchange for assistance against the Brandenburgers and the Teutonic Order[8].

1356 – Casimir the Great established the Higher Court of German Law for cities[8].

1356 – Lviv was granted city rights[8].

1356-1360 – Casimir the Great enacted statuses for Greater Poland and Lesser Poland[8].

May 12, 1364 – Casimir the Great founded the Cracow Academy (which was the second higher institution of learning in Central Europe, after Prague)[8].

September 1364 – a convention of monarchs was held in Krakow with the participation of Emperor and King Charles IV of Bohemia, King Casimir of Poland, King Louis of Hungary, King Peter of Cyprus, King Valdemar IV of Denmark, Duke Siemowit of Mazovia, the Dukes of Silesia and Margrave Otto of Brandenburg[8].

November 5, 1370 – Casimir the Great died[8].

Andegavian reign[edit | edit code].

Louis of Hungary

Jadwiga of Andegavia

Separate article: Polish history (1320-1386).

November 17, 1370 – Louis of Hungary was crowned[8].

1374 – a convention was held in Košice, in which privileges for the nobility were established[8].

1382 – Louis of Hungary died[8].

October 16, 1384 – Jadwiga Andegawenska was crowned[8].

August 14, 1385 – Poland and Lithuania concluded the Union of Krewa – Jadwiga of Anjou marries Ladislaus Jagiello[8].

Reign of the Jagiellons[edit | edit code].

Separate articles: History of Poland (1386-1492) and History of Poland (1492-1572).

Reign of Władysław Jagiełło (1386-1434)[edit | edit code].

Ladislaus Jagiello

Ladislaus of Varna

Kazimierz Jagiellonian

John Olbracht

Alexander Jagiellonian

Sigismund the Old

Sigismund Augustus

February 15, 1386 – Ladislaus Jagiello was crowned[8].

1386 – the baptism of Lithuania took place[8].

1387 – a Catholic bishopric was established in Vilnius[8].

1397 – an organization of Chełmno nobles established the Jaszczurczy Union directed against the abuses of Teutonic officials[8].

1398 – the Lithuanian-Teutonic peace was signed on Salin Island[8].

July 17, 1399 – Jadwiga Andegawenska died[8].

August 12, 1399 – Vytautas’ army suffered defeat at the Battle of Vorskla – the defeat prompted Vytautas to rapprochement with Poland against the Teutonic Knights[8].

ca. 1400 – the Cracow Academy was renewed[9].

1401 – Wladyslaw Jagiello’s brother, Vytautas, became Grand Duke of Lithuania[8].

1401 – the Vilnius-Radom Union was concluded, under which Vytautas was given the throne of Grand Duke of Lithuania for life; in return, he had to recognize the supremacy of Jogaila as supreme prince of Lithuania and pledged not to enter into treaties with the Teutonic Knights without Jogaila’s consent[10].

1401 – an uprising broke out against the Teutonic Knights in Samogitia[10].

1402 – the Teutonic Knights bought the New March from the Brandenburgers, separating Western Pomerania from Poland[10].

1404 – Poland and Lithuania made peace with the Teutonic Knights at Raciążek[10].

1404-1406 – Lithuanian-Moscow war: Vytautas captured Smolensk[10].

April 1409 – the Teutonic Knights seized Polish ships sailing to Lithuania under the pretext of carrying arms for the Samogitians[10].

May 1409 – another uprising of the Samogitians broke out[10].

August 1-6, 1409 – a Polish envoy set out for Malbork: the Teutonic Knights responded to the declaration of alliance with Lithuania by declaring war[10].

August 12, 1409-1411 – Great war with the Teutonic Order[10].

August 12, 1409 – Teutonic Knights entered Kujawy and Dobrzyn lands[10].

October 6, 1409 – Polish troops captured Bydgoszcz[10].

October 8, 1409 – Poland made peace with the Order[10].

December 20, 1409 – the Teutonic Knights entered into an anti-Polish alliance with King Sigismund of Luxembourg of Hungary[10].

June 21, 1410 – Sigismund of Luxembourg declared war on Poland[10].

June 24, 1410 – Poland and Lithuania attacked the Teutonic territories[10].

June 30 – July 2, 1410 – Crown troops crossed the Vistula near Czerwinsk – the march on Malbork began[10].

July 15, 1410 – a 40,000-strong Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian army defeated the Teutonic armies supported by western knights at Grunwald – Teutonic Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen was killed in the battle

July 25 – August 19, 1410 – unsuccessful siege of Malbork[10].

October 10, 1410 – at Koronowo Poland defeated Teutonic reinforcements[10].

October 1410 – Sigismund of Luxemburg invaded Sącz[10].

December 9, 1410 – a Polish-Teutonic truce was concluded in Nieszawa[10].

February 1, 1411 – a peace treaty was concluded in Torun, under which the Teutonic Knights ceded the Dobrzyń Land to Poland and Zmudź to Lithuania[10].

1412 – Sigismund of Luxembourg made peace with Poland and Lithuania[10].

1413 – the Union of Horodle was concluded, under which Poland and Lithuania remained independent states[10].

July – December 1414 – Hunger War between Poland and the Order[10].

1421 – Poland and Brandenburg entered into an anti-Crusader alliance[10].

1422 – the Czerwiński Privilege was established, under which Władysław Jagiełło pledged not to confiscate the estates of the nobility without a court verdict[10].

July-November 1422 – Polish-Teutonic war: Polish troops ravaged the Chelmno land[10].

November 27, 1422 – Poland concluded a peace with the Teutonic Knights at Lake Melno, by which Lithuania obtained confirmation of its rights to Samogitia, and Poland regained the Teutonic part of Kuyavia[10].

1423 – the Statute of Warka was enacted, by virtue of which the nobility gained the right to rug the village heads, and the voivodes set the prices of agricultural products[10].

1430-1433 – the Jedlno-Krakow privileges were enacted, which guaranteed personal immunity to the nobility[10].

October 27, 1430 – Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania died; he was succeeded by Ladislaus Jagiello’s youngest brother, Svidrigillo[10].

1431-1432 – the Polish-Lithuanian conflict over Podolia and Volhynia broke out, Svidrigillo concluded a truce with the Teutonic Knights[10].

1432 – Sigismund Kiejstutowicz overthrew Svidrygiello’s rule – in Grodno he concluded a new union with Poland[10].

1433 – Polish troops attacked Teutonic territories[10].

1434 – Władysław Jagiełło died[10].

Reign of Ladislaus Varna (1434-1444)[edit | edit code].

July 25, 1434 – Vladislav III Varnaenko was crowned[10].

December 31, 1435 – Peace between Poland and the Teutonic Knights was signed in Brest Kujawski[10].

1439 – Spytek of Melsztyn’s Confederation was broken up by the royal army at the Battle of Grotniki[10].

March 20, 1440 – Sigismund Kiejstutowicz was killed in an assassination attempt; Casimir Jagiellon was elected to the Lithuanian throne[10].

July 7, 1440 – Ladislaus III became king of Hungary[10].

1443 – Ladislaus III made peace with Turkey in Szeged for a period of ten years[10].

November 10, 1444 – Hungarian troops lost to the Turks at Varna – Ladislaus III was killed during the battle[10].

1445-1446 – negotiations took place between Polish lords on the seizure of the Polish throne[10].

Reign of Casimir Jagiellon (1447-1492)[edit | edit code].

June 25, 1447 – Casimir Jagiellon became the king of Poland and Lithuania – during the coronation a personal union of the two states was concluded on the basis of equality[10].

1449 – Zbigniew Oleśnicki, Bishop of Kraków, became a cardinal[11].

1454 – the Statutes of Nieszawa were enacted[9].

1454-1466 – Thirteen Years’ War[9].

February 1454 – the Prussian Union declared obedience to the Teutonic Order and surrendered to the Polish king[11].

March 6, 1454 – Casimir Jagiellon incorporated Prussia into the Kingdom of Poland[11].

September 18, 1454 – a Polish massed army suffered defeat at Chojnice[11].

November 11-12, 1454 – Casimir IV Jagiellonian issued the Nieszawa Privilege, under which the common marches were to take place only with the consent of the land sejmiks[11].

1455-1480 – creation of the Annals, or chronicles of the famous Kingdom of Poland by Jan Długosz[11].

June 1457 – Poland bought Malbork, Tczew and Ilawa from the Teutonic Order. The new seat of the order became Königsberg[11]

September 1457 – the Teutonic Knights recaptured Malbork[11].

August 1460 – Poles retook Malbork[11].

September 17, 1462 – Polish troops defeated the Teutonic Order at Swiecin[11].

September 15, 1463 – a battle took place on the Vistula Lagoon, won by Poland[11].

October 19, 1466 – the Second Peace of Torun ended the Thirteen Years’ War – Poland regained Gdansk Pomerania, Malbork, Elblag, the lands of Michalow and Chelmno, and the Warmian episcopal duchy[11].

1468 – Casimir Jagiellon concluded a treaty with King George of Poděbrady of Bohemia on the succession of the Bohemian throne to the Jagiellonians[11].

July 22, 1471 – Ladislaus Jagiellon took the throne of Bohemia[11].

1471 – unsuccessful Polish expedition to Hungary took place[11].

1473-1474 – conflict with Hungary – Casimir Jagiellonian tried to fill the Hungarian throne to his son Casimir[11].

February 19, 1473 – Nicolaus Copernicus was born[11].

1473 – the first Polish printing house was established in Kraków[11].

1475-1476 – Jan Ostrorog’s Memorandum on the Establishment of the Republic was passed[11].

1477-1489 – Wit Stwosz creates St. Mary’s Altar[11].

1478-1479 – Popia War: Teutonic Knights seized several Prussian cities, but had to withdraw – Matthias Corvinus, allied with the Order, occupied Silesia[11].

1490 – Ladislaus Jagiellon took the Hungarian throne[11].

1490-1492 – War for the throne between Ladislaus Jagiellon and John Olbracht[11].

July 7, 1492 – Casimir Jagiellon died[11].

1492 – The personal union between Poland and Lithuania was broken as a result of the casting of Casimir Jagiellon’s son, Alexander, as Grand Duke of Lithuania[11].

Reign of Jan Olbracht (1492-1501)[edit | edit code].

1496 – Jan Olbracht issued the Petrograd Privilege, which restricted the outmigration of peasants and banned the acquisition of landed property by townsmen[11].

1497 – Jan Olbracht led an unsuccessful expedition to Moldavia[11].

1499 – Poland and Lithuania concluded the Union of Vilnius, which confirmed the equality of the two states[11].

1500 – On the Vedrosha River, Lithuania was defeated by Moscow forces – Lithuania lost part of the Chernihiv-Shevre land and Smolensk[11].

June 17, 1501 – Jan Olbracht died[11].

Reign of Alexander Jagiellon (1501-1506)[edit | edit code].

1501 – The role of the Senate was increased as a result of the Mielnicki Privilege[11].

December 12, 1501 – Alexander Jagiellon was crowned[11].

1505 – the Sejm of Radom adopted the Nihil novi constitution, which annulled the Mielnica provisions and introduced the principle that nothing new could be decided without the consent of both chambers of the Sejm, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies[11]

1506 – The Statute of Laski was created[11].

1506 – Alexander Jagiellon died[11].

Reign of Sigismund the Old (1506-1548)[edit | edit code].

December 8, 1506 – the Sejm, meeting in Piotrków, elected Sigismund the Old as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania[11].

January 24, 1507 – Sigismund the Old was crowned[11].

1507 – Lithuanian troops stopped the Moscow offensive in Smolensk[11].

1507 – Reconstruction of the royal castle at Wawel in Renaissance style was completed[11].

1508 – the rebellion of Prince Michał Gliński in Lithuania broke out[11].

December 14, 1511 – Sigismund the Old allowed Duke Albrecht Hohenzollern of Brandenburg to become Grand Master of the Teutonic Order[12].

1512 – Crown and Lithuanian armies defeated Tartar troops at Lopuszno[12].

1514 – Moscow troops captured Smolensk[12].

September 8, 1514 – the Polish-Lithuanian army defeated the Moscow army at the Battle of Orsha[12].

1515 – Historia de Rega describing the history of Wladyslaw Varnañczyk was written[12].

July 17-22, 1515 – a convention was held in Vienna[12].

March 13, 1516 – Ladislaus Jagiellon, ruler of Hungary and Bohemia, died. Both thrones were succeeded by his son Ludwig[12].

1517 – construction of the Sigismund Chapel began[12].

April 18, 1518 – wedding of Sigismund the Old to Bona Sforza[12].

1519-1521 – Prussian War[12].

1522-1526 – conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Gdansk, ending with the king’s intervention[12].

April 10, 1525 – Albrecht Hohenzollern paid the fief homage to Sigismund the Old in Cracow.

1526 – Louis Jagiellon died during the Battle of Mohacz – the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia were assumed by Archduke Ferdinand Habsburg[12].

1528 – Nicolaus Copernicus published a treatise On the Method of Minting Coinage, in which he included a thesis on the displacement of better coinage by inferior coinage[12].

1529 – Mazovia was incorporated into the Crown[12].

1529 – the first Statute of Lithuania was issued, which codified customary law in the Grand Duchy[12].

December 18, 1530 – Sigismund Augustus was crowned by vivente rege[12].

1533 – Poland made peace with Turkey[9].

1534-1537 – Lithuanian-Moscow war[12].

1534-1535 – the Piotrków Sejm was held[12].

1538-1539 – execution sejm was held in Piotrkow[12].

1543 – A Short Treatise Between Three Persons, Panem, Wójt and Plebanem by Mikołaj Rej was written[12].

1543 – Nicolaus Copernicus published the treatise On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, in which he proved that the Earth revolves around the Sun[12].

1544 – Sigismund the Old handed over power in Lithuania to Sigismund Augustus[12].

1547 – Sigismund Augustus secretly married Barbara Radziwillowna – the marriage caused an uproar among the nobility[12].

April 1, 1548 – Sigismund the Old died[12].

Reign of Sigismund Augustus (1548-1572)[edit | edit code].

1548 – the Diet of Petrograd was held, dominated by the issue of Sigismund Augustus’ marriage to Barbara Radziwill[12].

July 2, 1549 – Sigismund Augustus concluded an alliance with King Ferdinand Habsburg of Bohemia[12].

1550 – Barbara Radziwillowna was crowned[12].

1550 – Sigismund Augustus issued an edict against dissenters[12].

May 8, 1551 – Barbara Radziwill died[12].

1551 – Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski published On the Repair of the Republic[12].

1557 – Bona Sforza was poisoned in Bari[12].

1558 – Ivan IV the Terrible attacked Inflants[12].

1558 – the first Polish post office was established[12].

1558 – Bartholomew Groicki published the first legal book in Polish: Articles of Magdeburg Law[12].

1559 – Sigismund Augustus issued an edict guaranteeing freedom of religion in Royal Prussia[12].

1560 – Gdansk organized a caper fleet in Polish service[13].

1561 – Master of the Livonian Order Gothard Kettler secularized Inflants and ceded it to Poland and Lithuania[13].

1562-1563 – the Diet of Piotrków was held, at which Sigismund Augustus increased the privileges of the nobility[13].

1563-1564 – the Warsaw Seimas was held, at which Sigismund Augustus relinquished hereditary rights to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania[13].

1564 – Lithuanian army smashed Russian forces at Orsha and Chasnik[13].

1564 – the Duchies of Zator and Oswiecim were incorporated into the Crown[13].

1564 – the first works of Jan Kochanowski were published[13].

1566 – the Second Statute of Lithuania was held[13].

1568-1570 – conflict between Sigismund Augustus and the patriciate of Gdansk[13].

1568 – Mirror by Mikołaj Rej was published[13].

1568 – in September, the king moves permanently with his court and central offices to Warsaw[14].

March 16, 1569 – Royal Prussia is incorporated into the Crown[13].

July 1, 1569 – Poland and Lithuania concluded the Union of Lublin, under which the two states merged into one country[13].

July 7, 1572 – Sigismund Augustus died – the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty[13].

Reign of the elected kings[edit | edit code].

Henry Valois

Stefan Batory

Sigismund Vasa

Ladislaus Vasa

John Casimir

Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki

John III Sobieski

August II Saxon

Stanislaw Leszczynski

Augustus III Sas

Stanislaw August Poniatowski

Interregnum (1572-1573)[edit | edit code].

1572-1573 – the interregnum period[13].

January 6-28, 1573 – the Convocation Sejm was held in Warsaw[13].

January 28, 1573 – the Warsaw Confederation was held, during which freedom of religion was guaranteed to dissident nobles in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[13].

May 16, 1573 – the first free election in Poland took place[13].

Reign of Henry of Valois (1573-1574)[edit | edit code].

February 21, 1574 – Henry of Valois was crowned[13].

June 18-19, 1574 – Henry Valezy secretly left Poland[13].

May 12-July 8, 1575 – an interregnum was declared during the convention of the nobility in Stężyca[13].

Reign of Stefan Batory (1575-1586)[edit | edit code].

1576 – the convention of nobles in Jędrzejów supported the candidacy of Stefan Batory[13].

May 1, 1576 – Stefan Batory married Anna Jagiellonka[13].

1576-1577 – Stefan Batory’s conflict with Gdansk[13].

1577 – Ivan IV the Terrible invaded Inflants[13].

1578 – the Crown Tribunal was established[13].

1578 – Jan Kochanowski published Odprawa posłów greckich[13].

September 1578 – Stefan Batory created a registry of 530 Cossacks in Lviv for the war with Moscow[13].

1579-1581 – war with Russia over Inflants[15].

June – September 1579 – Stefan Batory’s first expedition to Moscow took place[13].

May 1579 – Stefan Batory founded the Vilnius Academy[13].

August 5, 1580 – Stefan Batory’s second expedition against Moscow took place[13].

1580 – Jan Zamoyski founded Zamosc[13].

1581 – Stefan Batory’s third expedition against Moscow took place, during which Polish troops surrounded Pskov[13].

1581 – the Lithuanian Tribunal was established[13].

January 15, 1582 – Poland concluded a truce with Moscow at Jama Zapolsk – Moscow returned Inflants and the land of Polotsk to Poland[13].

1584 – Jan Kochanowski’s Fraszki (Phrases) were published[13].

December 12, 1586 – Stefan Batory died in Grodno[13].

June 30-August 22, 1587 – during an electoral convention, Sigismund Vasa was elected king[13].

Reign of Sigismund Vasa (1587-1632)[edit | edit code].

December 27, 1587 – Sigismund Vasa was crowned[16].

August 2, 1589 – Henry Vasa was killed in an assassination attempt[16].

1589 – Jan Zamoyski created the Ordynacja Zamojska – a complex of landed estates not subject to division[16].

1591-1593 – the Cossack uprising of Krzysztof Kosinski broke out[16].

May 31, 1592 – Sigismund III Vasa married Anna of Habsburg[16].

September-October 1592 – political crisis broke out[16].

February 20, 1594 – Sigismund Vasa was crowned in Uppsala[16].

1594-1596 – the Cossack uprising of Semen Nalewajka broke out[16].

September-November 1595 – Jan Zamoyski’s victorious expedition to Moldavia took place[16].

October 6-10, 1596 – the Union of Brest was concluded[16].

1597 – Sejm Sermons by Piotr Skarga were published[16].

1598 – Sigismund III Vasa’s expedition to Sweden took place. The purpose of the expedition was to tame the rebellion of Charles Suderman[16].

September 25, 1598 – Sigismund III Vasa returned to the Republic[16].

July 1599 – the parliament of Sweden dethroned Sigismund III[16].

1599 – the first complete translation of the Bible into Polish by Rev. Jakub Wujek was published[16].

March 12, 1600-1611 – Polish-Swedish war for Inflants[16].

March 12, 1600 – Poland incorporated Estonia[16].

1604-1606 – the first Dmitryiad, an armed expedition by the armies of several Polish magnates into Russia to install Dmitri Samozwaniec on the Moscow throne, took place[16].

1605 – Poles installed Dmitry Samozwaniec on the throne[16].

June 3, 1605 – Jan Zamoyski died[16].

September 27, 1605 – at Kircholm, the army of Lithuanian field hetman Jan Chodkiewicz defeated a Swedish army three times as strong[16].

1606-1609 – Zebrzydowski’s rebellion[16].

1607-1610 – the second Dmitry took place[16].

March 10, 1609 – an anti-Polish Swedish-Russian treaty was passed in Vyborg[16].

May 28, 1609 – Sigismund III Vasa moved the seat of the kingdom from Krakow to Warsaw[16].

October 1609 – the armies of the Commonwealth attacked Russia: the siege of Smolensk[16].

July 4, 1610 – Polish troops under Stanislaw Zolkiewski smashed the more numerous Russian army at Klushino[16].

August-October 1610 – Poland seized Moscow’s Kremlin[16].

1611-1612 – an anti-Polish rebellion broke out in Moscow[16].

July 13, 1611 – Poles captured Smolensk[16].

1612 – Sigismund III led an unsuccessful expedition to Moscow[16].

March 23, 1613 – the Commonwealth concluded an alliance with Austria[16].

1617-1618 – unsuccessful expedition to Russia took place[16].

1617-1618 – Polish-Swedish war[16].

January 3, 1618 – Poland received new territorial gains under the Truce of Deulin[16].

September 1620 – an unsuccessful expedition to Moldavia took place[16].

September 18-20, 1620 – Stanislav Zolkiewski was killed during the Battle of Cecora[15].

November 15, 1620 – Michal Piekarski carried out an unsuccessful assassination attempt on King Sigismund III[16].

1621 – Battle of Chocim[15].

1622 – the Swedes again invaded Inflants[16].

1625 – third Swedish invasion of Inflants[16].

1626-1629 – Polish-Swedish war[16].

November 28, 1627 – Poland defeated the Swedish fleet at Oliva[16].

July 27, 1629 – Hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski defeated the Swedes at Trzciana[16].

September 26, 1629 – the Altmar truce between Poland and Sweden was concluded[16].

April 30, 1632 – Sigismund III Vasa died[17].

Reign of Ladislaus Vasa (1632-1648)[edit | edit code].

November 8, 1632 – Wladyslaw IV was elected king of Poland[17].

1632-1634 – Polish-Moscow war[17].

February 25, 1634 – Poles captured the Smolensk fortress[17].

November 12, 1635 – a truce with Sweden was concluded in Sztumska Ves, under which Inflants was divided[17].

March 10, 1637 – the Commonwealth annexed the duchies of Lębork and Bytow[17].

March 16, 1637 – Ladislaus IV married Cecilia Renata[17].

1637 – Pavel Pavlyuk’s Cossack rebellion broke out in Zadnieper[17].

January 29-30, 1644 – Hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski defeated the Tatar expedition of Tuhaj bej at Ochmatov[17].

March 24, 1644 – Cecilia Renata died[17].

1644 – Sigismund III Vasa’s column was unveiled[17].

1645-1647 – Ladislaus IV prepared a great expedition against Turkey[17].

March 11, 1646 – Stanislaw Koniecpolski died[17].

May 20, 1648 – Wladyslaw IV Vasa died[17].

1648 – Khmelnytsky uprising broke out in Ukraine[17].

Reign of Jan Kazimierz Vasa (1648-1668)[edit | edit code].

November 20, 1648 – election of Jan Kazimierz as Polish king[17].

July – August 1649 – Cossack troops besieged the fortress of Zbarazh[17].

July 1649 – a Polish-Cossack settlement was concluded in Zborow[17].

June 28-30, 1651 – at Beresteczko the Polish army defeated the Cossack and Tatar armies[17].

September 22, 1651 – a Polish-Cossack settlement was concluded in Biala Cerkiew[17].

June 1-3, 1652 – Cossacks defeated the crown army at Batoh[17].

April-October 1653 – Cossacks conducted an unsuccessful expedition into Moldavia[17].

October 1, 1653 – the Moscow Territorial Council passed a protectorate over Ukraine and declared war on the Commonwealth[17].

December 15-17, 1653 – under the terms of the settlement at Zhvaniac, the Tatars went over to the side of the Commonwealth[17].

January 17-18, 1654 – Ukraine was incorporated into Russia[17].

May – November 1654 – Polish-Moscow war[17].

June – October 1655 – Moscow troops occupied part of Lithuania with Vilnius, Belarus with Minsk, reaching Lublin[17].

July 19, 1655 – King Charles X declared war on the Republic – the beginning of the Swedish Deluge[17].

July 25, 1655 – the Swedes occupied Greater Poland[17].

September 8, 1655 – the Swedes occupied Warsaw[17].

September-October 1655 – siege of Krakow[17].

October 17, 1655 – King Jan Kazimierz left Poland for Austrian Silesia[17].

October 20, 1655 – Janusz and Boguslaw Radziwill concluded a treaty with Charles X Gustav in Kiejdany[17].

October 21, 1655 – the nobility of the southeastern provinces recognized the authority of Charles Gustav[17].

October 26, 1655 – the Crown army capitulated before the Swedes[17].

November 1655 – at Jezierna the Tatars defeated the Cossacks – surrounded Bohdan Khmelnytsky recognized the supremacy of Jan Kazimierz[17].

November 18 – December 26, 1655 – siege of Czestochowa by the Swedes[17].

November 20, 1655 – Jan Kazimierz issued a universal calling for battle against the Swedes[17].

December 18, 1655 – Jan Kazimierz returned to Poland[17].

December 29, 1655 – an armed confederation of nobles was formed in Tyszowice to fight against Sweden[17].

December 31, 1655 – Janusz Radziwill died during the siege of Tykocin[17].

November 3, 1656 – a Polish-Moscow truce was concluded in Nemesis[17].

August 6, 1657 – Bohdan Chmielnicki died[17].

September 16, 1658 – the Polish-Cossack union was concluded in Hadziacz[17].

December 14, 1658 – Polish cavalry under Czarniecki crossed the sea strait into Denmark[17].

1658-1660 – Polish-Moscow war[17].

1658 – Polish brothers were expelled[15].

November 1-3, 1660 – the Miracles settlement was concluded[17].

January 3, 1661 – the first issue of Merkuriusz Polski, the first Polish newspaper, was published[17].

January 30, 1667 – under the Polish-Moscow truce in Andrusov, Ukraine was divided between the two states along the Dnieper[17].

1668 – a law was introduced forbidding the departure from Catholicism[15].

1668 – abdication of Jan Kazimierz[17].

Reign of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (1669-1673)[edit | edit code].

June 19, 1669 – election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki in Wola near Warsaw[18].

November 29, 1669 – Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki was crowned[18].

1670 – conflict broke out over the Hetman’s mace in Right-bank Ukraine: The Republic supported Mikhail Khanenko, while the Turks and Tatars sided with Petr Doroshenko[18].

1670-1675 – the poem epic The Chocim War by Waclaw Potocki was written, dedicated to the defense of Chocim in 1621[18].

July-October 1671 – the Cossack-Tatar offensive in Ukraine took place, which was stopped by Jan Sobieski’s army[18].

December 10, 1671 – Turkey declared war on the Republic[18].

July-October 1672 – Turks invaded Podolia[18].

August 26, 1672 – Kamieniec Podolski capitulated[18].

October 16, 1672 – an unfavorable peace treaty was concluded in Buczacz, under which the Commonwealth ceded Podolia to Turkey and undertook to pay tribute. The Sejm did not ratify the treaty[18].

October 16, 1672 – a pro-Kingdom confederation in Golab declared traitors to the nation (including Jan Sobieski and Primate Mikolaj Prazmowski)[18].

November 23, 1672 – the Crown army formed a confederation in Szczebrzeszyn in defense of Sobieski[18].

December 16, 1672 – Jan Kazimierz Vasa died[18].

March-April 1672 – the pacification parliament in Warsaw passed a resolution dissolving both hostile confederations[18].

November 10, 1673 – Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki died[18].

November 11, 1673 – Jan Sobieski’s army defeated the Turks at Chocim[18].

Reign of John III Sobieski (1674-1696)[edit | edit code].

May 21, 1674 – Jan Sobieski became king of Poland[18].

1674 – Turkish offensive into Right-bank Ukraine[18].

1674 – Jan III Sobieski organized an expedition to Podolia, recapturing Bar and Braclaw[18].

June 11, 1675 – John III Sobieski concluded a secret treaty with France, directed against the Habsburgs and Brandenburg[18].

February 2, 1676 – John III Sobieski was crowned[18].

September-October 1676 – Jan III Sobieski defeated the Turkish-Tartar invasion of Red Ruthenia[18].

October 17, 1676 – Poland concluded a truce with Turkey at Zhovrava, under which Turkey received Podolia and Right-Bank Ukraine, while the Commonwealth did not have to pay tribute from then on[18].

1677-1696 – construction of the royal palace in Wilanow[18].

1677-1695 – construction of Krasinski Palace in Warsaw[18].

1678 – magnates formed a dethronement conspiracy, by virtue of which the Polish throne was to be seized by Prince Charles of Lorraine[18].

1678-1679 – the Sejm in Grodno was held[18].

1678-1679 – John III Sobieski abandoned the pro-Franco camp and moved closer to the Habsburg party[18].

1679 – John Hevelius published the astronomical treatise Machina coelestis[18].

1682 – Stanislaw Czernicki published the first Polish cookbook[18].

March 1683 – a great Turkish expedition led by the vizier Kara Mustafa set out for Hungary and Austria[18].

April 1, 1683 – Poland concluded an anti-Turkish alliance with Austria[18].

July 14, 1683 – Kara Mustafa’s troops began the siege of Vienna[18].

July 29, 1683 – Imperial troops, supported by Polish forces, defeated the Turks at Bratislava[18].

July-September 1683 – concentration of crown troops near Krakow and march to Vienna[18].

September 12, 1683 – battle of Vienna: the forces of the Austro-German-Polish coalition under the command of Jan III Sobieski defeated the Turkish army[18].

October 7-9, 1683 – two battles took place at Parkany, the first won by the Turks, the second by the Poles[18].

November-December 1683 – Polish troops returned to the country[18].

December 1683 – Polish and Cossack troops liberated Podolia[18].

1683 – Vespasian Kochanowski published the first volume of Annales (Annals) devoted to the history of Poland from 1648 to 1675[18].

March 5, 1684 – an anti-Turkish alliance of Poland, Austria, Venice and the papacy (the Holy League) was formed[18].

1684 – an unsuccessful attempt was made to put Jacob Sobieski on the throne of Moldavia[18].

May 6, 1686 – the Republic signed a perpetual peace with Russia (the so-called Treaty of Grzymułtowski)[18].

1686 – an unsuccessful attempt was made to put Jacob Sobieski on the throne of Moldavia[18].

1691 – there was an unsuccessful attempt to put Jacob Sobieski on the throne of Moldavia[18].

1692 – Queen Marie Kazimiera Sobieska signed a secret treaty with French King Louis XIV on behalf of the king for an alliance between the two countries[18].

1695 – Tatar invasion of the southeastern borderlands of the Republic repulsed by Stanislaw Jabłonowski[18].

ca. 1695 – Jan Chryzostom Pasek finished writing his Memoirs[18].

June 17, 1696 – King Jan III Sobieski died[18].

1696-1697 – interregnum after the death of Jan III Sobieski[19].

Reign of Augustus II the Strong (1697-1704)[edit | edit code].

June 27, 1697 – election of Saxon elector Frederick Augustus i Wettin as king of Poland[19].

September 15, 1697 – Augustus II the Strong was crowned[19].

September 8-9, 1698 – Hetman Feliks Kazimierz Potocki won a victory over the Tatar army at Pohajce[19].

January 26, 1699 – the Holy League concluded peace with Turkey at Karlovice[19].

November 30, 1700 – November 10, 1721 – the Northern War, which was fought mainly on Polish territory, continued[15]

June – August 1701 – the Swedish army occupied Kaunas[19].

July 24, 1702 – the Swedes occupied Warsaw[19].

July 19, 1702 – Sweden defeated the Saxon-Polish-Tartar army at Klishovo[19].

August 10, 1702 – the Swedes occupied Kraków[19].

February 1704 – anti-King opposition formed a confederation in Warsaw and declared an interregnum[19].

May 20, 1704 – supporters of Augustus II the Strong formed a confederation in Sandomierz and formed an alliance with Russia[19].

July 12, 1704 – a convention of nobles was held in Warsaw, during which August II was dethroned and Stanislaw Leszczynski was elected king of Poland[19].

Reign of Stanislaw Leszczynski (1704-1709)[edit | edit code].

August 30, 1704 – August II concluded a treaty with Tsar Peter I, Russian troops entered the Republic[19].

October 4, 1705 – Stanislaw Leszczynski was crowned at Warsaw Cathedral[19].

November 28, 1705 – Stanislaw Leszczynski concluded an alliance with Charles XII[19].

1705 – August II established the Order of the White Eagle[19].

September 24, 1706 – the Swedish-Saxon Peace of Altranstäd was concluded: August II the Strong renounced the Polish crown and recognized Leszczynski’s authority[19].

June 1707 – the Sandomierz Confederation did not recognize Leszczynski’s authority and placed itself under the protection of the Czar of Russia[19].

August 1709 – August II returned to the Republic, Stanislaw Leszczynski fled Poland[19].

Reign of Augustus II the Strong (1709-1733)[edit | edit code].

1710 – Russian troops occupied Inflants[19].

1713 – August II deployed Saxon garrisons in the Republic[19].

November 26, 1715 – opposition against August II formed the Tarnogrod Confederation[19].

February 1, 1717 – the Silent Sejm was held – a one-day session where no one was allowed to speak for fear of breaking up the session. The session was controlled from behind the scenes by the Russian ambassador[19].

February 17, 1720 – a secret Russian-Prussian treaty was concluded at Potsdam to maintain the current political state of the Republic[19].

November 23, 1732 – Austria, Russia and Prussia concluded the Treaty of the Three Black Eagles to block Leszczynski’s re-election as king of Poland[19].

1733 – a law was introduced excluding dissenters from holding state offices and from the Sejm[15].

February 1, 1733 – August II the Strong died[19].

War of the Polish Succession and the reign of Augustus III Sas (1733-1763)[edit | edit code].

1733-1735 – War of the Polish Succession: Stanislaw Leszczynski (November 12, 1733) and August III Wettin (October 5, 1733) were elected to the throne[19].

1733 – political treatise The Free Vote insuring freedom, attributed to Leszczynski, was published, proclaiming, among other things, the abolition of the liberum veto, serfdom and free election[19].

January 17, 1734 – August III was crowned[19].

May 1734 – Stanislaw Leszczynski fled the country[19].

November 5, 1734 – Leszczynski’s supporters concluded the Dzików Confederation, at which they declared August III to be a usurper[19].

January 26, 1736 – abdication of Stanislaw Leszczynski[19].

June – August 1736 – the pacification sejm was held in Warsaw[19].

1737 – the Republic concluded a treaty with the Holy See[19].

1740 – Stanislaw Konarski founded the Collegium Nobillium[19].

1744 – the first Masonic lodge “Three Brothers” was founded in Warsaw[19].

1746 – Benedykt Chmielowski published the first Polish encyclopedia[19].

1747 – Jozef Andrzej Załuski opened Poland’s first public library[19].

1760 – Andrzej Zamoyski abolished serfdom of peasants in his estates[19].

October 5, 1763 – August III Sas died[19].

May-July 1764 – reforms of the treasury, army and judiciary were carried out and the liberum veto was limited[20].

Reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski (1764-1795)[edit | edit code].

Partitions of Poland

September 6, 1764 – election of Stanislaw August Poniatowski[20].

November 19, 1765 – the National Theater in Warsaw was opened[20].

1765 – Stanislaw Poniatowski founded the School of Knights[20].

1765-1785 – the socio-political magazine Monitor was published[20].

1766 – the Warsaw Sejm rejected projects to grant full rights to dissenters[20].

June 23, 1767 – the Radom Confederation formed a conspiracy against Stanislaw Poniatowski[20].

1767-1780 – Italian painter Bernardo Bellotto, called Canaletto, was active in the Republic[20].

February 29, 1768 – the Bar Confederation was established[20].

June-July 1768 – a peasant uprising broke out in Ukraine (kolishchyna)[20].

October 22, 1770 – confederate authorities announced the dethronement of the monarch and an interregnum[20].

November 3, 1771 – the Bar Confederates made an unsuccessful attempt to kidnap Stanislaw Poniatowski[20].

1772 – Italian cartographer Jan Antoni Rizzi-Zannoni produced a map of Poland on a scale of 1:962,000[20].

August 5, 1772 – First partition of Poland between Prussia, Russia and Austria[20].

September 30, 1773 – the Extraordinary Sejm in Warsaw ratified the partition treaties[20].

October 14, 1773 – the Commission of National Education was established[20].

1773-1774 – construction of the Bydgoszcz Canal[20].

1775 – Ignacy Krasicki published the work of Mikołaj Doświadczyński cases[20].

March 1775 – the Sejm appointed the Permanent Council, a permanent government composed of the king, 18 senators and 18 deputies[20].

1777-1783 – reform of the Krakow Academy by Hugo Kołłątaj[20].

October 11, 1779 – Casimir Pulaski was killed at the Battle of Savannah[20].

1780-1784 – construction of the Oginski Canal connecting the basins of the Neman and Dnieper rivers[20].

1784-1793 – reconstruction of the Lazienki Palace[20].

May 6, 1787 – Stanislaw Poniatowski’s meeting with Tsarina Catherine the Great took place – the Tsarina did not allow political and military reforms in Poland[20].

October 1788 – May 1792 – deliberations of the Great (Four-Year) Sejm[20].

1788 – The Sejm passed an increase in the size of the army to 100,000 soldiers and introduced a tax on the army[20].

January 19, 1789 – Stanislaw August dissolved the Permanent Council[20].

December 2, 1789 – a “black procession” passed through the streets of Warsaw, in which the bourgeoisie demanded economic and political rights[20]

1789-1790 – the first census in history took place[20].

March 29, 1790 – Poland concluded an alliance with Prussia[20].

1790 – additional elections to the Sejm were held[20].

March 24, 1791 – the Sejm passed a law on sejmiks, which removed the govt from power[20].

April 21, 1791 – the Sejm passed a law on cities[20].

May 3, 1791 – the first Polish constitution was passed (the May 3 Constitution)

April 27, 1792 – the Targowica confederation was established[20].

May-July 1792 – war with Russia in defense of the May 3 Constitution[20].

June 18, 1792 – the Polish army under the command of Prince Józef Poniatowski was victorious at Zieleniec[20].

June 22, 1792 – Stanislaw August Poniatowski established the Order of Virtuti Militari[20].

June 22, 1792 – Stanislaw August sent peace proposals to Catherine II[20].

July 18, 1792 – Tadeusz Kosciuszko’s army lost at Dubienka[20].

July 24, 1792 – Stanislaw Poniatowski joined the Bargain Confederation[20].

July – September 1792 – mass accessions of the nobility to the Targowica[20].

January 21, 1793 – Second Partition of Poland[20].

June – November 1793 – extraordinary parliament in Grodno adopted partition treaties with Russia and Prussia[20].

1793 – 1794 – resistance to Russian occupation of Targowica rule grew[21]

February-March 1794 – reduction of the armies of the Republic[21].

March 12, 1794 – the national cavalry units of Gen. Antoni Madalinski mutinied[21].

March 24, 1794 – the Kosciuszko insurrection broke out[21].

March – April 1794 – organization of the insurgent authorities and army[21].

April 4, 1794 – battle of Raclawice won by Kosciuszko’s army[21].

April 17, 1794 – uprising broke out in Samogitia[21].

April 17-18, 1794 – an insurrection broke out in Warsaw led by Jan Kilinski[21].

April 22-24, 1794 – an insurrection broke out in Vilnius led by Colonel Jakub Jasinski[21].

May 7, 1794 – Tadeusz Kosciuszko issued a universal (called Połaniec) near Połaniec, in which he announced agrarian reform[21].

May 8-9, 1794 – riots broke out in Warsaw, during which the leaders of Targowica were publicly executed[21].

June 6, 1794 – at Szczekociny the insurgent army lost to Prussian and Russian troops[21].

June 15, 1794 – Prussian troops took Kraków[21].

July 7-11, 1794 – the troops of Kosciuszko and General Jozef Zajaczek unsuccessfully defended the outskirts of Warsaw[21].

August 11-12, 1794 – Russians captured Wilno[21].

July-October 1794 – insurrection in Greater Poland, supported by insurgent troops of General Jan Henryk Dabrowski[21].

October 2, 1794 – General Dabrowski’s troops captured Bydgoszcz[21].

October 10, 1794 – battle of Maciejowice: Kosciuszko was taken prisoner[21].

1794 – Tomasz Wawrzecki became head of the uprising[21].

September 4, 1794 – Russian troops slaughtered Prague[21].

September 9, 1794 – capitulation of the capital[21].

November 16, 1794 – the remnants of the insurgent army capitulated[21].

November 19, 1794 – Russians arrest Tomasz Wawrzecki – end of the Kosciuszko insurrection[21].

December 1794 – Tadeusz Kościuszko was imprisoned in the Petropavlovsk Fortress[21].

January 3, 1795 – Austro-Russian convention on the division of the lands of the Republic was passed[21].

October 24, 1795 – the Third Partition of Poland[21].

Partition period[edit | edit code].

Separate articles: Polish History (1831-1914) and Polish History (1914-1918).

First years of partition (1795-1815)[edit | edit code].

The Duchy of Warsaw

January 9, 1797 – Jan Henryk Dabrowski formed the Polish Legions[21].

January 26, 1797 – the three partitioning powers signed a convention on the final liquidation of Poland[21].

1797 – the new Russian Tsar Paul I softened his course towards the Poles (among other things, he released Kosciuszko and Potocki from prison)[21].

February 12, 1798 – Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, died in St. Petersburg[21].

1798 – Princess Izabela Czartoryska began the construction of the Temple of Sybil in Puławy, considered the first Polish museum.”[22]

November 1, 1800 – the Society of Friends of Science, the first Polish national association, was founded in Warsaw[21].

May 18, 1802 – soldiers of the Polish Legions were sent to the French colony of San Domingo (now Haiti) to suppress local revolts there[21].

1803 – Adam Jerzy Czartoryski became superintendent of the Vilnius school district, thanks to which he played a major role in the reform of Polish education in the Russian partition[21]

October 1805 – on the initiative of Tadeusz Czacki, the Krzemieniec High School was established[21].

November 7, 1806 – the Greater Poland Uprising broke out under the leadership of Jan Henryk Dabrowski and Jozef Wybicki[21].

November 28, 1806 – French troops arrived in Warsaw[21].

1806 – Samuel Bogumił Linde published the first of six volumes of the “Dictionary of the Polish Language.”[21]

January 14, 1807 – by decree of Napoleon I, a 7-member Governing Commission was established[21].

July 7-9, 1807 – by the Peace of Tilsit the establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw was established[21].

July 22, 1807 – the constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw was adopted in Dresden[21].

April 14, 1809 – Austria attacked the Duchy of Warsaw[21].

April 19, 1809 – battle of Raszyn[21].

May-July 1809 – the leader of the Duchy’s army, Prince Jozef Poniatowski, surrendered Warsaw and attacked the lands of the Austrian partition: liberation of Krakow, Lvov and Zamosc[21].

October 14, 1809 – by virtue of the Franco-Austrian peace at Schönbrunn, the Duchy of Warsaw gained New Galicia[21].

February 22 or March 1, 1810 – Frederic Chopin was born[21].

September 14, 1811 – the enfranchisement of peasants in Prussia was carried out[21].

May 26, 1812 – Frederick Augustus, Duke of Warsaw, transferred full executive power to the Principality’s Council of Ministers[21].

July 1, 1812 – Napoleon established the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania[21].

January-February 1813 – Russian troops entered Warsaw[21].

March 14, 1813 – Tsar Alexander I established the Provisional Supreme Council of the Duchy of Warsaw in Warsaw[21].

October 19, 1813 – Prince Joseph Poniatowski was killed during the Battle of Leipzig[21].

May 3, 1815 – Russia, Prussia and Austria concluded a treaty on the division of Polish lands: the Kingdom of Poland united by a personal union with Russia, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen within the borders of Prussia and the Republic of Cracow ruled by Austria were created[21].

Kingdom of Poland (1815-1918)[edit | edit code].

Congress Kingdom of Poland

Until the outbreak of the November Uprising (1815-1830)[edit | edit code].

May 20, 1815 – Alexander I established the Provisional Government and the Provisional Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland[21].

November 27, 1815 – Alexander I granted a constitution to the Kingdom of Poland[21].

November 19, 1816 – Alexander I established the Royal University of Warsaw[23].

1816 – the Philomath Society was founded in Vilnius[23].

October 15, 1817 – Tadeusz Kosciuszko died in Switzerland[23].

1817 – Jozef Maksymilian Ossoliński founded the National Institute (known as the Ossolineum)[23].

May 3, 1819 – Major Walerian Lukasinski founded the National Freemasonry in Warsaw, an organization seeking to unite the Polish lands[23].

May 1, 1821 – the conspiratorial organization Patriotic Society was founded[23].

1821 – the Philomath Society changed its name to the Philaret Society[23].

1822 – Adam Mickiewicz’s Ballads and Romances were published in Vilna[23].

October 1822 – Walerian Lukasinski and other leaders of the Patriotic Society were arrested[23].

April 8, 1823 – enfranchisement reform was carried out in the Prussian partition[23].

1823-1824 – Vilnius Philomaths and Philarets were arrested[23].

December 1, 1825 – Tsar Alexander I died, his brother Nicholas I took the Russian and Polish throne[23].

1826-1828 – a trial was held against the Patriotic Society[23].

January 29, 1828 – the Bank of Poland was established[23].

December 1828 – Piotr Wysocki establishes a secret Union at the School of Infantry Cadets[23].

1828 – Adam Mickiewicz’s poetic novel Konrad Wallenrod was published in St. Petersburg[23].

March 17, 1830 – Frederic Chopin’s first concert was held at Warsaw’s National Theater[23].

November 29/30, 1830 – “November night” – the beginning of the November Uprising[23].

November Uprising (1830-1831)[edit | edit code].

November 30, 1830 – assassination attempt on Grand Duke Constantine failed[23].

November 30, 1830 – the Administrative Council placed General Jozef Chłopicki in command of the army and began talks with Konstanty[23].

December 3, 1830 – the Administrative Council transformed into the Provisional Government[23].

December 3, 1830 – Grand Duke Constantine withdrew from the Kingdom of Poland[23].

December 5, 1830 – General Jozef Chłopicki declared himself dictator of the uprising[23].

December 18, 1830 – the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland declared the uprising national[23].

January 18, 1831 – General Chłopicki resigned as dictator of the uprising[23].

January 25, 1831 – the Sejm dethroned Nicholas I[23].

January 30, 1831 – the National Government headed by Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski was formed[23].

February 5-6, 1831 – Russian forces entered the Kingdom of Poland[23].

February 14, 1831 – victory of Polish troops at Stoczek[23].

February 19-20, 1831 – victory of Polish troops at Wawer[23].

February 25, 1831 – battle of Olszynka Grochowska[23].

February 26, 1831 – General Józef Skrzynecki became commander-in-chief of the uprising[23].

March 3, 1831 – insurgent troops seized Lublin and Zamosc[23].

March 1831 – uprising broke out in Lithuania[23].

March 31, 1831 – the Polish offensive began according to Gen. Ignacy Prądzyński’s plan[23].

April 1831 – unsuccessful expedition of Gen. Dwernicki’s corps to Volhynia took place[23].

May 26, 1831 – defeat of Poles in the Battle of Ostroleka[23].

June 21, 1831 – the National Government announced the conscription of the common mass[23].

July – August 1831 – the Russian army crossed the Vistula River and occupied areas northwest of Warsaw[23].

August 17, 1831 – General Jan Krukowiecki became the new head of government and commander-in-chief of the army[23].

September 6-8, 1831 – Russian assault on Warsaw[23].

September 10, 1831 – General Maciej Rybinski took command of the army[23].

October 5, 1831 – the Polish army crossed the Prussian border: members of the insurgent authorities went into exile[23].

October 21, 1831 – Zamosc fortress capitulated: end of the November Uprising[23].

Period until the January Uprising (1831-1863)[edit | edit code].

November 1, 1831 – a tsarist amnesty was announced for soldiers and non-commissioned officers who took part in the November Uprising[23].

November 6, 1831 – the Provisional Committee of Polish Emigration was established in Paris[23].

November 14, 1831 – the Tsar established a customs border between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Poland[23].

December 15, 1831 – Joachim Lelewel founded the Polish National Committee[23].

December 1831 – Nicholas I ordered the closure of Warsaw and Vilnius Universities and secondary schools[23].

February 26, 1832 – Nicholas I abolished the Constitution, incorporated the Kingdom into the Russian Empire once he abolished the Polish Sejm, army and separate budget[23]

February 26, 1832 – Frederic Chopin gave his first concert in Paris[23].

March 17, 1832 – the Polish Democratic Society was founded[23].

April 1832 – Russians began construction of the Warsaw Citadel[23].

after 1832 – Polish intelligentsia began to emerge[24]

March-April 1833 – Col. Józef Zaliwski made an unsuccessful attempt to provoke an uprising in the Kingdom[23].

November 1833 – Young Poland, the Polish section of the international revolutionary organization Young Europe, was founded in Switzerland[23].

January 1, 1834 – Russian became the official language in the Polish lands[23].

1834 – Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz was published[23].

1835 – Nie-Boska komedia (Un-divine comedy) by Zygmunt Krasiński was published anonymously in Paris[23].

1837 – administrative reform was carried out[23].

November 24, 1838 – the Polish Library was established in Paris[23].

1841 – the Russian monetary system was introduced on Polish soil[23].

June 15, 1845 – the first section of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway was opened[23].

February 20, 1846 – the Cracow Revolution broke out[25].

April 15, 1846 – Austria abolished the Republic of Cracow[25].

1847 – Russian penal code was introduced in the Kingdom of Poland[25].

January 1, 1848 – Stanislaw Moniuszko’s Halka was premiered[25].

March 20, 1848 – the Greater Poland Uprising broke out[25].

March – April 1848 – Polish national representations were established in Krakow and Lviv[25].

April 22, 1848 – the Austrian governor of Galicia announced the abolition of peasant serfdom[25].

April 26-29, 1848 – riots in Krakow[25].

April-May 1848 – Greater Poland insurgents fought battles with Prussian troops[25].

September 7, 1848 – the enfranchisement of peasants was carried out in Austria[25].

October-November 1848 – Austrian troops occupied Lviv[25].

October 17, 1849 – Frederic Chopin died in Paris[25].

December 1849 – the Grand Duchy of Posen was incorporated into Prussia[25].

October 25, 1850 – the customs border between the Kingdom of Poland and the Russian Empire was abolished[25].

1851 – Cyprian Kamil Norwid published Promethidion[25].

1854 – Ignacy Łukasiewicz built the first oil well in Bóbrka near Krosno[25].

May 2, 1855 – Tsar Nicholas I died, his son Alexander II took the throne[25].

November 26, 1855 – Adam Mickiewicz died[25].

May 1856 – visit of Tsar Alexander I to Warsaw[25].

October 1, 1857 – the Academy of Medicine and Surgery was opened in Warsaw[25].

November 24, 1857 – the Agricultural Society was founded in Warsaw with Count Andrzej Zamoyski at its head[25].

1858-1862 – development of independence conspiracy among youth[25].

November 29, 1860 – on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the outbreak of the November Uprising, a large demonstration broke out in Warsaw[25].

1860-1861 – patriotic manifestations were issued in Cracow[24].

1861-1864 – abolition of serfdom[24].

February 25-27, 1861 – Russian troops dispersed two demonstrations organized in Warsaw[25].

February 26, 1861 – Crown lands in Austria were granted autonomy[25].

February 28, 1861 – the City Delegation was established[25].

March 27, 1861 – Polonization of education began[25].

June 18, 1861 – self-governing gubernial, district and city councils were established in the Kingdom of Poland[25].

October 14, 1861 – tsarist authorities declared martial law in the Kingdom of Poland[25].

October 15-16, 1861 – the Russian army suppressed demonstrations in Warsaw[25].

December 1861 – the “Whites,” seeking to restore the autonomy of the Kingdom, became active[25].

May 18, 1862 – the first section of the Warsaw-Petersburg Railway was opened[25].

1862 – the “Reds” formed an underground National Central Committee headed by Jaroslaw Dabrowski[25].

June 5, 1862 – levy of peasants was carried out[25].

June 5, 1862 – education reform was carried out[25].

June 14, 1862 – Aleksander Wielopolski was appointed head of the civil government of the Kingdom[25].

June 27, 1862 – the “Reds” carried out an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich and Alexander Lüders[25].

July 2, 1862 – “Reds” carried out an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich and Alexander Lüders[25].

August 8, 1862 – an assassination attempt was carried out against Alexander Wielopolsky[25].

August 14, 1862 – Jaroslaw Dabrowski was arrested[25].

August 15, 1862 – an assassination attempt was carried out against Alexander Wielopolski[25].

October 1862 – tsarist authorities conducted conscription[25].

November 25, 1862 – the Central School was opened in Warsaw[25].

January 2-3, 1863 – the National Central Committee decided to launch an uprising when conscription began[25].

January 14-15, 1863 – 1,500 young men were conscripted – the beginning of the Russian takeover[25].

January 15-22, 1863 – at the call of the organization, the youth fled the cities en masse[25].

January 22, 1863 – the January Uprising broke out – the Provisional National Government took power in the country[25].

January Uprising (1863-1864)[edit | edit code].

February 7, 1863 – the Provisional National Government issued a proclamation to the Poles[25].

February 8, 1863 – Prussia concluded a military treaty with Russia to suppress the January Uprising[25].

April 13, 1863 – Tsar Alexander II announced an amnesty for insurgents who laid down their arms[25].

April 1863 – development of the uprising in Lithuania[25].

May 10, 1863 – the Provisional National Government transformed into the National Government[25].

June 12, 1863 – Karol Majewski became head of the National Government[25].

September 16, 1863 – Majewski’s government collapsed – the “Reds” took over[25].

October 17, 1863 – Romuald Traugutt became the dictator of the uprising[25].

February 29, 1864 – Austrian authorities declared a state of siege in Galicia[25].

April 11, 1864 – Traugutt was arrested[25].

April 28, 1865 – Stanislaw Moniuszko’s opera The Haunted Manor premiered in Warsaw[26].

August 5, 1864 – Romuald Traugutt was executed[25].

1864 – end of the January Uprising

Until the outbreak of World War I (1864-1914)[edit | edit code].

December 10, 1865 – Tsar Alexander II prohibited Poles from buying property in the so-called “Taken Lands.”[26]

1865 – amnesty for political prisoners was announced[26].

September 20, 1866 – Agenor Goluchowski became governor of Galicia[26].

1866-1871 – Russification of education in the Kingdom of Poland was carried out[26].

February 7, 1867 – the Union of Polish Gymnastic Societies “Sokol” was established in Lviv[26].

1867-1869 – the liquidation of the institutions of the Kingdom of Poland (including the Council of State and the Administrative Council) was carried out[26].

June 4, 1869 – Polish language was introduced into Galician offices[26].

1869 – Russian Warsaw University was established[26].

October 23, 1870 – Władysław Plater founded the Polish National Museum in Rapperswil, Switzerland[26].

1870 – the first volume of Karol Estreicher’s Bibliografia Polska was published[26].

1871 – Aleksander Świętochowski announced the principles of Polish positivism in the pages of the Weekly Review[26]

1871 – Polonization of higher education institutions in Cracow and Lviv was carried out[26].

1872 – Germanization of schools began[26].

1872 – the Academy of Skills was founded in Krakow[26].

1872 – Society for People’s Education was founded in Greater Poland to defend Poles against Germanization[26].

1872-1879 – kulturkampf[26].

1874 – the office of governor of the Kingdom of Poland was abolished[26].

1876-1880 – development of the socialist movement in the Polish lands[26].

June 19, 1876 – Germanization of schools in Greater Poland was carried out[26].

1876 – Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski’s The Old Tale was published[26].

1878 – Jan Matejko painted the Battle of Grunwald[26].

October 7, 1879 – the National Museum in Krakow opened[26].

1870s. – oil industry began to develop in Galicia[24].

1882 – a line of “horse-drawn iron railroad called tramway” was put into service in Krakow[27].

September 1, 1882 – Ludwik Warynski formed the Polish workers’ party “Proletariat.”[27]

1883 – Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski were the first to liquefy oxygen and nitrogen[27].

1885 – “Prussian rugby.”[27]

January 28, 1886 – proletarians were killed on the slopes of the Warsaw Citadel[27].

April 26, 1886 – the Reich authorities established a Colonization Commission to promote German settlement in Polish lands[27].

1886 – the Flying University was established in Warsaw[27].

1887 – the book On the Niemen by Eliza Orzeszkowa was published[27].

1887-1889 – Lalka (The Doll) by Boleslaw Prus was published in the pages of the Daily Courier[27].

1887-1888 – the socialist organization “II Proletariat” was founded[27].

1887 – the Polish League was founded in Switzerland[27].

1890 – Jan Matejko created “Poczet królów i książąt polskich”[27].

May 1, 1890 – the first May Day demonstrations were held in the Kingdom of Poland and Galicia[27].

January 31, 1892 – the Galician Social Democratic Party was founded in Lviv[27].

November 17-23, 1892 – a convention of socialists was held in Paris – a program for the restoration of an independent Polish state was announced and the Polish Socialist Party was established[27].

July 30, 1893 – split in the PPS[27].

1893-1894 – Wojciech Kossak and Jan Styka create Panorama of Raclawice[27].

April 1, 1893 – National League was founded[28].

July 12, 1894 – the first issue of “Robotnik” was published[27].

July 28, 1895 – the People’s Party was founded[28].

1896 – the novel Quo vadis by Henryk Sienkiewicz was published[28].

1897 – the Democratic and National Party was founded[28].

April 1901 – school children’s strikes broke out in Września in defense of the Polish language[28].

1903 – Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Peter Curie received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of polonium[28].

1903 – The People’s Party changed its name to the Polish People’s Party[28].

January 17, 1904 – the founding convention of the Democratic National Party was held in Galicia[28]

October-November 1904 – the PPS Fighting Organization was established[28].

1905 – Henryk Sienkiewicz received the Nobel Prize for Quo vadis[28].

January 28, 1905 – PPS declared a general strike in the Kingdom of Poland, demanding political freedoms[28].

November 1, 1905 – Russian troops suppressed a demonstration in Warsaw: 40 people were killed and 170 wounded[28].

November 10, 1905 – Russian authorities imposed martial law in the Kingdom of Poland[28].

December 1905 – January 1906 – another general strike in the Kingdom of Poland[28].

August 15, 1906 – “Bloody Wednesday” – PPS militias carried out about 100 assassination attempts on Russian military officers, policemen and officials[28].

1908-1914 – numerous paramilitary organizations were formed in Galicia, which played a major role during World War I[24].

1911 – Marie Sklodowska-Curie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on radium, polonium and radioactivity[28].

1913-1914 – split in the PSL into two groups: PSL “Piast” and PSL-Left[28].

July 28, 1914 – beginning of World War I[29].

World War I (1914-1918)[edit | edit code].

August 3, 1914 – mobilization of units of the Riflemen’s Union and Riflemen’s Teams in Krakow was announced[28].

August 6, 1914 – the First Cadre Company set out[29].

August 8, 1914 – the supreme commanders of the Austro-Hungarian and German armies announced a proclamation to the Poles[29].

August 14, 1914 – proclamation by Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov[29].

August 1914 – Polish Legions were formed[29].

autumn 1914 – underground Polish Military Organization was established[29].

August 1915 – the Central Powers captured the Kingdom of Poland[29].

July 4-6, 1916 – battle of Kostiuchnowka[29].

November 5, 1916 – the monarchs of Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaimed the Act of November 5[29].

January 22, 1917 – Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, gave a speech that included the creation of an independent and united Poland[29].

March 1917 – Roman Dmowski issued a memorandum on the restoration of Poland[29].

June 4, 1917 – formation of the Polish Army (the so-called “Blue Army”) began in France[29].

July 1917 – the “oath crisis” broke out, Jozef Pilsudski was interned in Magdeburg[29].

August 1917 – the Polish National Committee, headed by Roman Dmowski, was established in Lausanne[29]

September 1917 – the Polish Legions were disbanded[29].

January 8, 1918 – President Wilson’s 14 points were announced[30].

March 3, 1918 – in Brest, Soviet Russia and the Central Powers signed a peace treaty[30].

June 3, 1918 – the prime ministers of Great Britain, France and Italy made a declaration stating that the creation of a Polish state was a condition for lasting peace in Europe[30].

October 7, 1918 – the Regency Council took charge of the Polish Armed Forces[30].

October 7, 1918 – Jozef Swiezynski became prime minister[30].

October 18, 1918 – the National Council of Cieszyn Silesia was established[30].

October 28, 1918 – the Polish Liquidation Commission was established in Kraków[31].

October 31, 1918 – Poles gained power in Kraków and Lviv[30].

November 1, 1918 – fighting broke out with Ukraine over Lviv and Eastern Galicia[30].

November 7, 1918 – the Provisional People’s Government of the Polish Republic was established in Lublin[32].

November 10, 1918 – Jozef Pilsudski was brought to Warsaw[32].

November 11, 1918 – Germany and the Entente signed an armistice; the Regency Council transferred command of the Polish Armed Forces to Jozef Pilsudski – Poland regained its independence[32].

Second Republic[edit | edit code].

Jozef Pilsudski

Gabriel Narutowicz

Stanisław Wojciechowski

Ignacy Moscicki

Democratic Second Republic (1918-1926)[edit | code edit].

November 14, 1918 – Jozef Pilsudski took political power[30].

November 12, 1918 – Jozef Pilsudski issued the first order to the Polish Army, in which he emphasized the harmful role of heterogeneity and differences in the ranks of the army[33].

November 16, 1918 – Jozef Pilsudski sent a telegram to countries participating in World War I and neutral countries saying that they had regained their independence[30].

November 18, 1918 – the government of Jędrzej Moraczewski was established[30].

November 19, 1918 – the last German troops seceded from the Warsaw citadel; Harry Kessler, MP, arrived in Warsaw, signifying the recognition of the Polish state by the Germans[33]

November 21, 1918 – Ukrainian troops were driven out of Lviv[30].

November 22, 1918 – a decree was established on the supreme representative authority of the Polish Republic until the Legislative Sejm was convened; Jozef Pilsudski became the Provisional Chief of State[30].

December 9, 1918 – the inauguration of the Catholic University of Lublin – the fourth (after Krakow, Lviv and Warsaw) all-Polish institution of higher learning – was held[33]

December 26, 1918 – Ignacy Paderewski arrived in Poznan[30].

December 27, 1918 – the Greater Poland Uprising broke out[30].

January 5, 1919 – Red Army troops occupied Vilnius[33].

January 6, 1919 – the Greater Poland Uprising insurgents seized Inowrocław and the Ławica airport near Poznań

January 16, 1919 – the government of Jędrzej Moraczewski resigned – Ignacy Paderewski became the new prime minister[30].

January 26, 1919 – elections to the Legislative Sejm were held[30].

January 1919 – the Czechoslovak army entered Cieszyn Silesia[30].

February 20, 1919 – the “small constitution” was passed[30].

April 19, 1919 – the Polish Army occupied Vilnius[34].

May 25, 1919 – the NRL commissariat placed the Greater Poland Army at the disposal of the Commander-in-Chief[33].

June 28, 1919 – the Treaty of Versailles was signed, thanks to which Poland received Greater Poland and Pomerania[34].

August 16, 1919 – the First Silesian Uprising broke out[34].

October 11, 1919 – the Polish Stefan Batory University in Vilnius solemnly resumed its activities; the Polish Athletic Association was established in Krakow[33].

November 27, 1919 – Ignacy Paderewski’s government resigned[33].

December 21, 1919 – the Polish Football Association was established[33].

January 15, 1920 – the Sejm passed a law recognizing the Polish mark as the only currency permitted to circulate in the territory of the Republic[33].

April 25-May 7, 1920 – victorious offensive of Polish and Ukrainian troops, seizure of Kiev[34].

May 7, 1920 – the Sejm passed a law on the liquidation of servitudes on the territory of the former Kingdom of Poland[33].

May 9, 1920 – on the Ukrainian front, Poles seized Braclaw and Tulchyn[33].

May 13, 1920 – the first congress of the Professional Union of Polish Writers was held in Warsaw; Stefan Żeromski became president[33]

July 1920 – Wincenty Witos appointed the Government of National Defense[34].

summer 1920 – Russian counteroffensive across the front: Red Army reached the banks of the Vistula River[34].

July 11, 1920 – plebiscites were held in Warmia, Mazury and Powisle[34].

July 26, 1920 – the Commander-in-Chief dismissed General Stanislaw Haller as Chief of the General Staff; he was succeeded by General Tadeusz Rozwadowski[33].

August 11, 1920 – troops of the Soviet Western Front reached the banks of the Vistula River[33].

August 13-15, 1920 – the Battle of Warsaw

August 16, 1920 – beginning of the Polish counteroffensive from the banks of the Wieprz River[34].

August 20-28, 1920 – Second Silesian Uprising[34].

September 21, 1920 – Polish-Soviet peace negotiations began in Riga[33].

October 1920 – the territory of the Central Lithuania Governing Commission was established on the territory captured by General Lucjan Zeligowski[34].

December 31, 1920 – the First General Convention of the Polish Scouting Association began in Warsaw[33].

January 21, 1921 – the Sejm decided to establish the Senate as the upper house of the Polish parliament[33].

February 19, 1921 – Poland concluded an alliance with France[34].

March 17, 1921 – the March Constitution was passed[34].

March 18, 1921 – a peace treaty between Poland and Soviet Russia was signed in Riga[34].

March 20, 1921 – a plebiscite was held in Silesia[34].

April 1, 1921 – General Wladyslaw Sikorski was appointed chief of the General Staff (replacing General Rozwadowski)[33].

May 2-3, 1921 – the Third Silesian Uprising was carried out under the leadership of Wojciech Korfanty[34].

July 5, 1921 – fighting in Upper Silesia ceased[34].

September 13, 1921 – the government of Wincenty Witos resigned[33].

October 12, 1921 – Silesia was divided between Germany and Poland[34].

April 16, 1922 – the German-Soviet treaty was signed in Rapallo[34].

November 5, 1922 – elections to the Sejm of the first term were held[34].

November 12, 1922 – elections to the Senate of the first term were held[34].

December 9, 1922 – Gabriel Narutowicz became the first president of Poland[34].

December 16, 1922 – a fanatical nationalist assassinated Gabriel Narutowicz[35].

December 20, 1922 – Stanislaw Wojciechowski became the second president of Poland[34].

March 15, 1923 – a conference of the Council of Ambassadors recognized Poland’s eastern border[36].

May 17, 1923 – the Lanckorona Pact was signed[36].

November 1923 – a general strike broke out[36].

1923 – economic crisis broke out as a result of hyperinflation[35]

January 1924 – the Bank of Poland was established[36].

December 10, 1924 – Wladyslaw Reymont received the Nobel Prize for his novel “Peasants.”[36]

1924 – Wladyslaw Grabski carried out economic reforms (including the exchange of the Polish mark for the zloty)[35].

February 1, 1925 – the first broadcast of the Polish Radio program took place[36].

February 10, 1925 – Poland signed a concordat with the Vatican[36].

October 5-16, 1925 – the Locarno Conference was held[36].

December 28, 1925 – the Agricultural Law was passed[36].

December 28, 1925 – customs war with Germany began[36].

May 10, 1926 – the government of Wincenty Witos was formed[36].

May 12-15, 1926 – the May coup was carried out, after which Sanation took power[36].

Sanation rule (1926-1939)[edit | edit code].

June 1, 1926 – Ignacy Moscicki became president of Poland[36].

June 24, 1926 – August Hlond became Primate of Poland[36].

August 2, 1926 – the “August amendment” was passed[36].

October 2, 1926 – Jozef Pilsudski took office as Prime Minister[36].

December 1927 – Poland made an unsuccessful attempt to settle diplomatic relations with Lithuania[36].

January 19, 1928 – the organization of the Non-Partisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government began[36].

March 1928 – parliamentary elections were held[36].

September 1929 – Centrolew was formed[36].

1929 – Poland fell into economic crisis[35].

February 9, 1929 – Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the USSR and Romania signed a declaration renouncing war as a means of conflict resolution

June 1930 – Centrolew congress in Krakow[37].

August 25, 1930 – Jozef Pilsudski became prime minister[37].

August 29, 1930 – Ignacy Moscicki dissolved the parliament[37].

September 9-10, 1930 – Centrolew politicians were sent to Brest[37].

March 15, 1931 – merger of PSL-Piast and PSL “Wyzwolenie” into People’s Party[37].

October 26, 1931 – beginning of the Brest trial[37].

January 13, 1932 – end of the Brest trial[37].

March 11, 1932 – educational reform took place[37].

August 25, 1932 – the Polish-Soviet non-aggression pact was signed[37].

November 2, 1932 – Jozef Beck became foreign minister[37].

January 26, 1934 – the Polish-German non-aggression pact was signed[37].

May 5, 1934 – Poland and the USSR extended the non-aggression pact for 10 years[37].

June 10, 1934 – the Bereza Kartuska detention camp was established[37].

April 24, 1935 – the April Constitution was passed[37].

May 12, 1935 – Jozef Pilsudski died[37].

September 8, 1935 – parliamentary elections were held[37].

autumn 1935 – the BBWR was dissolved[37].

1935 – end of economic crisis[35].

November 10, 1936 – General Edward Smigly-Rydz became the Marshal of Poland[38].

1936-1939 – as a result of statism and Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski’s economic program, there was rapid economic development and an improvement in the living conditions of the population[35].

February 21, 1937 – the Camp of National Unity was established[38].

August 1937 – peasant strikes broke out[38].

March 1938 – Poland forced Lithuania to establish diplomatic relations[38].

September 30, 1938 – Poland handed Czechoslovakia an ultimatum demanding the return of Cieszyn Silesia[38].

October 2, 1938 – Polish troops entered Cieszyn Silesia[38].

October 24, 1938 – Germany made political proposals to Poland[38].

November 6 and 13, 1938 – parliamentary elections were held[38].

January 2, 1939 – Roman Dmowski died[38].

April 6 and 13, 1939 – Great Britain and France guaranteed military aid to Poland[38].

April 28, 1939 – Germany broke a non-aggression treaty with Poland[38].

May 1939 – France and Britain presented a plan to help Poland[38].

August 23, 1939 – the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed[38].

August 25, 1939 – Poland entered into an alliance with Great Britain[38].

August 26, 1939 – original date of German attack on Poland postponed as a result of the Polish-British alliance[38].

September 1, 1939 – Nazi Germany, in concert with the Soviet Union, invaded Poland. Beginning of the September campaign in Poland. Beginning of World War II

World War II (1939-1945)[edit | edit code].

September 3, 1939 – France and Britain declared war on Germany[39].

September 3-4, 1939 – “Bloody Sunday” in Bydgoszcz[39].

September 7, 1939 – capitulation of Westerplatte[39].

September 8, 1939 – the first German attack on Warsaw began[39].

September 9-22, 1939 – Battle of the Bzura River[39].

September 17, 1939 – the USSR attacked Poland

September 22, 1939 – capitulation of Lviv[39].

September 27, 1939 – capitulation of Warsaw[39].

September 27, 1939 – General Michał Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz established the Polish Victory Service[39].

September 28, 1939 – signing of an agreement by the Third Reich and the USSR on the division of Polish lands[39].

October 2, 1939 – capitulation of Hel[39].

October 2-6, 1939 – the Battle of Kock[39].

October 22, 1939 – demonstration elections to the people’s assemblies of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus were held[39].

November 1-2, 1939 – Western Ukraine and Western Belarus were incorporated into the USSR[39].

December 4, 1939 – General Władysław Sikorski established the Union of Armed Struggle[39].

February 10, 1940 – deportation of Poles deep into the USSR began[39].

March 5, 1940 – the supreme authorities of the USSR decided to execute Polish Polish officers held at Kozelsk, Ostashkov and Starobielsk[39].

spring 1940 – construction of concentration camps began[39].

April 3, 1940 – the first group of Polish prisoners of war was deported from Kozelsk[39].

April 13, 1940 – the second deportation of Poles deep into the USSR was carried out[39].

April 1940 – the Independent Highland Rifle Brigade took part in the Battle of Narvik[39].

June 28-29, 1940 – third deportation of Poles deep into the USSR[39].

June 1940 – Polish government evacuated from France to Great Britain[39].

June 14, 1940 – first mass transport to Auschwitz concentration camp[40].

September 1940 – the Germans created a ghetto in Warsaw[40].

March 4, 1941 – Germans outlawed Jews living on Polish soil[40].

May-June 1941 – fourth deportation of Poles deep into the USSR[40].

July 30, 1941 – the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement was signed[40].

September 1941 – the formation of the Polish army in the USSR began[40].

January 5, 1942 – the Polish Workers’ Party was established[40].

February 14, 1942 – the Home Army was formed[40].

March 1942 – the Polish Army was evacuated to Iran[40].

July – August 1942 – the first transports of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka began[40].

December 2, 1942 – Mordechai Anielewicz founded the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw Ghetto[40].

March 26, 1943 – action under the Arsenal[41].

April 13, 1943 – the Germans found the graves of Polish officers in Katyn[41].

April 16, 1943 – the Polish government asked the International Red Cross to clarify information about Katyn[41].

April 19, 1943 – beginning of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising[41].

April 25, 1943 – Jozef Stalin broke off diplomatic relations with the Polish government in exile[41].

April 1943 – the Ukrainian Insurgent Army slaughtered Poles in Janowa Dolina[41].

July 4, 1943 – death of General Władysław Sikorski in a plane crash near Gibraltar[41].

July 1943 – mass murders of Poles in Volhynia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army[41].

July 1943 – Stanisław Mikołajczyk became Prime Minister, and General Kazimierz Sosnkowski became Commander-in-Chief[41].

October 12-13, 1943 – battles of the 1st Tadeusz Kosciuszko Infantry Division near Lenino[41].

December 31, 1943 – the National National Council was established in Warsaw. The KRN was composed of activists of the Polish Workers’ Party (PPR), some activists of the Workers’ Party of Polish Socialists, a few activists of the People’s Party “Will of the People.” Boleslaw Bierut became chairman of the KRN[41].

January 4, 1944 – the Red Army crossed the pre-war Polish border in Volhynia[41].

January 9, 1944 – the Government of National Unity led by Kazimierz Pużak was established[41].

April 1944 – the cadre organization “No” was established, headed by General August Emil Fieldorf[41].

May 18, 1944 – General Władysław Anders’ II Polish Corps captured Monte Cassino[41].

June 1944 – the “Storm” action in the Vilnius region began[42].

July 22, 1944 – official date of the establishment of the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN)[42].

July 26, 1944 – PKWN members signed a secret agreement in Moscow, in which, among other things, they relinquished the eastern provinces of the Polish Republic[42].

July 30 – August 10, 1944 – Stanislaw Mikolajczyk’s visit to Moscow[42].

August 1, 1944 – the Warsaw Uprising broke out

September 6, 1944 – PKWN issued a decree on land reform[42].

September 14, 1944 – the Red Army occupied Praga[42].

September 30, 1944 – General Kazimierz Sosnkowski resigned as Commander-in-Chief; his place was symbolically taken by General Tadeusz “Bor” Komorowski, who was in captivity[42].

October 2, 1944 – capitulation of the Warsaw Uprising[42].

November 24, 1944 – Prime Minister Stanisław Mikołajczyk resigned[42].

December 31, 1944 – PKWN was transformed into the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland[42].

January 19, 1945 – General Leopold Okulicki dissolved the Home Army[42].

January-May 1945 – the People’s Polish Army took part in the Red Army offensive[42].

February 4-11, 1945 – the Yalta Conference was held[42].

March 27, 1945 – the NKVD arrested the leaders of the Polish Underground State[42].

May 8, 1945 – the end of World War II in Europe

Polish People’s Republic[edit | edit code].

Boleslaw Bierut’s rule (1945-1956)[edit | edit code].

Boleslaw Bierut

June 18-21, 1945 – the Trial of the Sixteen took place in Moscow, a show trial of 16 political leaders of the Polish Underground State arrested by the NKVD on March 27, 1945[42].

June 21, 1945 – the Provisional Government of National Unity was formed[42].

July 1, 1945 – the Council of National Unity was dissolved[42].

July 17-August 2, 1945 – the Potsdam Conference was held. The conference established the course of Poland’s western border along the line of the Oder and Lusatian Neisse rivers. The lands east of these rivers, the so-called Western Lands, became part of the Polish state[42].

June 30, 1946 – A rigged popular referendum was held in Poland[43].

July 4, 1946 – A pogrom against Jews in Kielce was carried out[43].

January 19, 1947 – Elections to the Legislative Sejm were held[43].

February 6, 1947 – a government was formed with Jozef Cyrankiewicz as prime minister[43].

February 19, 1947 – the Small Constitution was passed[43].

July 9, 1947 – Poland rejected a proposal to participate in the Marshall Plan[43].

October 21, 1947 – Stanislaw Mikolajczyk left Poland[43].

August 31-September 3, 1948 – purges were carried out in the PPR during which Wladyslaw Gomulka was accused of “right-wing nationalist deviation.”[43]

October 22, 1948 – Cardinal August Hlond died; he was succeeded by Stefan Wyszynski[43].

December 15-21, 1948 – the Polish Workers’ Party (PPR) and the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) merged to form the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR)[44].

January 8, 1949 – the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CECA) was established in Moscow[44].

November 27, 1949 – as a result of the merger of the PSL and SL, the United People’s Party was formed[44].

December 20, 1949 – representatives of the PPS, SN and Independence and Democracy formed a Political Council in London headed by Tomasz Archiszewski[44].

April 14, 1950 – the Communists and the Polish Episcopate signed an agreement[44].

July 4, 1950 – first Polish broadcast of Radio Free Europe[44].

July 6, 1950 – a border treaty between Poland and East Germany was signed in Zgorzelec[44].

July 21, 1950 – the Six-Year Plan Law was passed[44].

February 15, 1951 – the Polish People’s Republic authorities signed an agreement with the USSR on the exchange of territories, thanks to which the USSR received new deposits of natural gas[44].

August 2, 1951 – Wladyslaw Gomulka was arrested as part of a party purge[44].

July 22, 1952 – the constitution of the Polish People’s Republic (PRL) was adopted[44].

October 26, 1952 – rigged elections to the Sejm were held[45].

January 1953 – began broadcasting regular television programming[45].

March 5, 1953 – Joseph Stalin died[45].

September 26, 1953 – Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski was arrested; Bishop Michal Klepacz became chairman of the Episcopate[45].

December 5, 1953 – high MBP officer Jozef Swiatlo fled to West Berlin[45].

March 14, 1954 – representatives of most political circles in exile established the Provisional Council of National Unity[45].

September 28, 1954 – Jozef Swiatlo’s first broadcast on RWE was held[45].

December 7, 1954 – the Ministry of Public Security was dissolved[45].

May 14, 1955 – the Warsaw Pact was established[45].

August 21, 1955 – Adam Ważyk published “Poem for Adults,” considered a symbolic break with Socialist Realism[45].

March 12, 1956 – Boleslaw Bierut died in Moscow[45].

Wladyslaw Gomulka’s rule (1956-1970)[edit | edit code].

Edward Ochab

Wladyslaw Gomulka

March 20, 1956 – Edward Ochab was elected First Secretary of the PZPR[45].

June 28, 1956 – an uprising broke out in Poznan[45].

October 21, 1956 – during the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee of the PZPR, Gomulka was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the PZPR[46].

October 26, 1956 – Primate Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski was released from internment[46].

November 28, 1956 – The competencies of the Committee for Public Security were taken over by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MSW). Establishment of the Security Service (SB).

January 20, 1957 – elections to the Sejm were held[46].

April 15, 1961 – combined elections to the Sejm and national councils were held[46].

October 21, 1963 – SB and ZOMO officers shot the last soldier of the underground – Jozef Franczak “Lalka”[46].

March 14, 1964 – Antoni Slonimski handed the Prime Minister Letter 34, objecting to the cultural policy pursued by the People’s Republic of Poland[46].

March 18, 1965 – Jacek Kuroń and Karol Modzelewski presented an “Open Letter to the Party.”[46]

April 8, 1965 – the friendship treaty with the USSR was extended; the new agreement lasted until 1985[47].

November 18, 1965 – the Polish bishops announced a message to the German people, including the words “We forgive and ask for forgiveness.”[42]

May 3, 1966 – the central celebration of the Millennium took place at Jasna Gora[47].

June 12, 1967 – the authorities of the People’s Republic of Poland broke off diplomatic relations with Israel[47].

January 30, 1968 – a procession of several hundred people marched to the Adam Mickiewicz monument in connection with the withdrawal by the authorities of the performance of “Dziady”[47].

March 8, 1968 – militia and “workers’ activists” suppressed student protests[47].

March 15, 1968 – riots broke out in Gdansk, where the militia fought 20,000 demonstrators[47].

August 21, 1968 – as part of Operation Danube, the People’s Army’s 2nd Army entered Czechoslovakia[47].

September 8, 1968 – during the Harvest Festival celebrations in Warsaw, Ryszard Siwiec committed an act of self-immolation in protest against Poland’s participation in the invasion of Czechoslovakia[47].

December 7, 1970 – German Chancellor Willy Brandt and Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz signed a treaty on the inviolability of the borders on the Oder and Neisse rivers[48].

December 12, 1970 – a food price hike was announced on the radio, to take effect on December 13[48].

December 14, 1970 – worker protests broke out in Gdansk – the beginning of December 1970[48].

December 15, 1970 – shipyard workers protests in Gdansk, the first protesters were murdered under the building of the Municipal Police Headquarters[48].

December 17, 1970 – soldiers blocking the Gdansk Shipyard opened fire on workers – more than a dozen people were killed[48].

December 17, 1970 – protests broke out in Szczecin, during which the headquarters of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party was set on fire. During fights with the militia, more than a dozen people were killed[48].

December 20, 1970 – Wladyslaw Gomulka was ousted from power. Edward Gierek became the first secretary of the PZPR Central Committee[48].

Edward Gierek’s rule (1970-1980)[edit | edit code].

Edward Gierek

January 24, 1971 – Edward Gierek and Prime Minister Piotr Jaroszewicz met with shipyard workers in Szczecin and Gdansk[48].

December 1, 1971 – after a strike in Lodz, the authorities withdrew from the December price hike[48].

October 5-6, 1971 – in protest against the failure to punish the perpetrators of the massacre on the Coast, brothers Jerzy and Ryszard Kowalczyk blew up the auditorium of the Higher School of Pedagogy in Opole[48].

May 1976 – a group of intellectuals formed the Polish Independence Agreement[49].

June 24, 1976 – Prime Minister Jaroszewicz presented a plan for price changes, resulting in protests (mainly in Radom and Ursus)[49]

September 23, 1976 – the Workers’ Defense Committee (KOR) was established[49].

May 7, 1977 – Stanislaw Pyjas was assassinated[49].

February 21, 1978 – the first Founding Committee of Free Trade Unions was established in Katowice[49].

October 16, 1978 – Cardinal Karol Wojtyla was elected bishop of Rome. The new pope took the name John Paul II[49].

April 8, 1979 – Edward Raczynski became president of the Polish Republic in exile[49].

June 2-10, 1979 – John Paul II’s first pilgrimage to Poland took place[49].

July 1979 – the Young Poland Movement was established[49].

July 1, 1980 – the authorities carried out a price increase on some meat products, a wave of strikes broke out[49].

August 14, 1980 – strikes broke out on the Coast, during which strikers put forward three demands: a wage increase, reinstatement of Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz, and commemoration of those killed in December 1970[49]

August 16, 1980 – the Inter-company Strike Committee was established with Lech Walesa at the head[50].

August 19, 1980 – the MKS was established in Szczecin with Marian Jurczyk as its leader[50].

August 30, 1980 – the August Agreements were signed[50].

September 17, 1980 – the beginning of Solidarity[50].

November 10, 1980 – the Supreme Court registered the NSZZ “Solidarity”[50].

December 10, 1980 – Czeslaw Milosz received the Nobel Prize[50].

December 16, 1980 – the Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers was unveiled in Gdansk[50].

December 19, 1980 – Edward Gierek and Piotr Jaroszewicz resigned[51].

Last years of communism (1980-1989)[edit | edit code].

Wojciech Jaruzelski

February 18, 1981 – the Independent Students’ Union was legalized[50].

March 19, 1981 – beginning of the Bydgoszcz crisis[50].

May 13, 1981 – assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II[50].

May 28, 1981 – Primate of Poland Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski died[50].

June 5, 1981 – the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow sent a letter to the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party in Warsaw assessing the situation in Poland[51].

October 18, 1981 – Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski also became First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party, replacing Stanislaw Kania[50].

November 4, 1981 – a meeting was held in Warsaw between Wojciech Jaruzelski, Lech Walesa and Cardinal Józef Glemp on the establishment of the Council of National Accord[51].

December 13, 1981 – the communist authorities of the Polish People’s Republic imposed martial law in Poland[50].

December 16, 1981 – the pacification of the Wujek mine in Katowice was carried out, during which nine people were killed[50].

December 23, 1981 – the United States imposed economic sanctions against Poland[51].

June 1982 – Solidarność Walcząca was established[50].

August 31, 1982 – largest wave of demonstrations during martial law[50].

October 8, 1982 – trade unions were outlawed[50].

December 31, 1982 – martial law was suspended[50].

June 16-23, 1983 – the second pilgrimage of Pope John Paul II to Poland took place[50].

July 22, 1983 – martial law was lifted[50].

October 5, 1983 – Lech Walesa received the Nobel Peace Prize[52].

October 19, 1984 – Father Jerzy Popieluszko was abducted and murdered in Toruń[51].

April 8, 1986 – Kazimierz Sabbat became president of the Republic of Poland[52].

September 11, 1986 – the communist authorities decided to release the majority of political prisoners[52].

September 29, 1986 – Lech Walesa appointed the open Provisional Council of the Solidarity Trade Union[52].

June 8-14, 1987 – John Paul II’s third trip to Poland took place[51].

October 25, 1987 – the National Executive Commission of Solidarity was established[51].

November 29, 1987 – a referendum was held in which voters rejected the government’s reform program, the turnout was 68%[51]

April-May 1988 – wave of strikes[52].

July 11-16, 1988 – visit of Mikhail Gorbachev to Poland[51].

August 15-September 1, 1988 – another wave of strikes broke out[51].

August 31, 1988 – Lech Walesa met with General Czeslaw Kiszczak – round table talks were announced[52].

December 18, 1988 – Lech Walesa established the Civic Committee[52].

December 23, 1988 – the Sejm adopted a law on freedom of economic initiative[51].

February 6 – April 5, 1989 – the Round Table talks took place[52].

May 8, 1989 – the first issue of “Gazeta Wyborcza” was published[52].

June 4, 1989 – the first round of elections to the so-called Contract Sejm took place, victorious for the Civic Election Committee centered around “Solidarity.” This date is usually taken as the end of communist rule in Poland[52]

Third Republic[edit | edit code].

Transformation (1989-2004)[edit | edit code].

Lech Walesa

Aleksander Kwasniewski

June 18, 1989 – the second round of elections to the Contract Sejm was held[52].

July 4, 1989 – the first session of the Third Republic’s Sejm and Senate was held[51].

July 19, 1989 – Ryszard Kaczorowski took office as President of the Republic of Poland[52].

July 19, 1989 – the National Assembly elected General Jaruzelski to the office of President of the People’s Republic of Poland by a margin of one vote[52].

August 1, 1989 – food prices were marketized – abolishing the ration card system[52].

August 2, 1989 – Czeslaw Kiszczak became prime minister, but failed to form a government[53].

August 17, 1989 – Poland and the Vatican resumed diplomatic relations[51].

August 24, 1989 – Tadeusz Mazowiecki became prime minister of the People’s Republic of Poland[52].

December 27, 1989 – the Sejm and Senate approved a package of economic reforms known as the Balcerowicz Plan[51].

December 29, 1989 – the constitution was amended; provisions on the role of the PZPR and the alliance with the USSR were removed, and the name of the state was changed to the Republic of Poland[51].

December 31, 1989 – the constitution of the People’s Republic of Poland was amended during which, among other things, the name of the state was changed to the Republic of Poland and the crown of the white eagle was restored to the Polish Emblem[54].

December 31, 1989 – implementation of the Balcerowicz Plan began[54].

January 29, 1990 – self-dissolution of the Polish United Workers’ Party took place[53].

March 8, 1990 – Law on local self-government and a new democratic electoral law was passed[51].

April 12, 1990 – censorship was abolished[51].

November 12, 1990 – Poland and Germany signed a treaty on the inviolability of borders[51].

November 25, 1990 – the first round of presidential elections was held[53].

December 9, 1990 – Lech Walesa won the presidential election[53].

June 1-9, 1991 – the fourth visit of John Paul II to Poland took place[51].

June 17, 1991 – the Polish-German treaty “On Good Neighborhood and Friendly Cooperation” was signed[51].

June 28, 1991 – proportional electoral law was passed[51].

October 27, 1991 – the first free parliamentary elections after World War II were held, in which the Democratic Union and the Democratic Left Alliance managed to be the only parties to win more than 10% of the vote – the turnout was 43.2%, while 29 parties entered the Sejm[53][55]

October 27 – December 6, 1991 – Jan Bielecki held the office of prime minister[53].

December 1991 – June 1992 – Jan Olszewski held the office of prime minister until the so-called “night shift.”[53]

April 23, 1992 – the Sejm passed a law on the mode of preparation and adoption of the Constitution[56].

May 22, 1992 – Boris Yeltsin and Lech Walesa signed a treaty on friendly and good-neighborly cooperation between Poland and Russia[51].

June-July 1992 – Waldemar Pawlak held the office of prime minister[53].

July 1992 – October 1993 – Hanna Suchocka held the office of prime minister[53].

October 17, 1992 – the Small Constitution was passed[56].

September 17, 1993 – the last Russian troops left Poland[51].

September 19, 1993 – parliamentary elections were held, in which a minimum threshold of 5% was introduced; the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) won[53][51]

September 1993 – March 1995 – Waldemar Pawlak held the office of prime minister[53].

April 9, 1994 – Poland applied to join the European Union[51].

January 1, 1995 – the zloty was denominated at a ratio of 1:10,000[51].

March 1995-January 1996-Jozef Oleksy held the office of prime minister[53].

October 19, 1995 – Aleksander Kwasniewski won the presidential election[51].

April 4, 1996 – formal talks on joining NATO began[51].

March 7, 1997 – a conference of the Committee for the Association of Poland with the European Union was held in Brussels[51].

March 22, 1997 – the National Assembly adopted a draft constitution[56].

April 2, 1997 – the National Assembly passed a new constitution[51].

May 25, 1997 – constitutional referendum held[56].

June 8, 1997 – Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary were invited to join NATO[51].

July 1997 – flood of the millennium[57].

October 17, 1997 – the constitution came into force[56].

October 21, 1997 – parliamentary elections were held, won by Solidarity Electoral Action, with Jerzy Buzek leading the government[53][51]

December 4, 1997 – a meeting was held between Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek and Chancellor Kohl at the Polish-German border[51].

February 23, 1998 – the concordat was ratified[51].

March 20, 1998 – the Polish Sejm passed a law on Poland’s membership in the EU[51].

1998 – Poland began talks on accession to the European Union[53].

January 1, 1999 – administrative reform, health care reform and social security reform were implemented[53].

February 26, 1999 – President Aleksander Kwasniewski signed the ratification act of the North Atlantic Treaty[51].

June 5-17, 1999 – visit of John Paul II to Poland[51].

1999 – Poland joined NATO[53].

October 8, 2000 – presidential elections were held, again won by Aleksander Kwasniewski[53].

2000 – the ruling coalition collapsed[53].

September 23, 2001 – parliamentary elections were won by the SLD-UP alliance, with Leszek Miller leading the government[53][51].

December 26, 2002 – the Rywin affair broke out[58].

February 5, 2003 – ambassadors of European Union member states adopted the final text of the accession treaty to the 10 new member states[51].

April 16, 2003 – the accession treaty was signed at a conference in Athens[59].

May 7-8, 2003 – in a referendum, Poles voted in favor of joining the European Union (77%)[51].

June 6, 2003 – Aleksander Kwasniewski signed a decision on the participation of the Polish military in the stabilization mission in Iraq[51].

May 1, 2004 – Poland joined the European Union[53].

Poland in the European Union (after 2004)[edit | edit code].

Lech Kaczyński

Bronislaw Komorowski

Andrzej Duda

May 2, 2004 – Marek Belka took office as prime minister[53].

June 13, 2004 – elections to the European Parliament were held[51].

April 2, 2005 – John Paul II died

September 25, 2005 – parliamentary elections were held, won by Law and Justice (PiS) – Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz became prime minister[60].

October 9, 2005 – the first round of presidential elections was won by Donald Tusk (36.33%). Lech Kaczynski (33.10%) won second place[61].

October 23, 2005 – the second round of the presidential election was won by Lech Kaczynski (54.04%)[61].

January 28, 2006 – a construction disaster in Silesia killed 65 people and injured 140[62].

February 2, 2006 – representatives of Law and Justice, Self-Defense and League of Polish Families signed the so-called “stabilization pact” for one year (it lasted one week)[63].

May 5, 2006 – the Law and Justice-Self Defense-LPR coalition was formed[64].

May 25-28, 2006 – Pope Benedict XVI’s first pilgrimage to Poland took place[65].

June 9, 2006 – the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau was established[66].

July 10 – Jaroslaw Kaczynski became prime minister[67].

September 8, 2006 – the Sejm passed a law amending the Constitution, allowing extradition of a Polish citizen

September 22, 2006 – Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture Andrzej Lepper was dismissed. Samoobrona left the coalition. Jaroslaw Kaczynski’s government thus lost stable support in parliament[64].

September 26, 2006 – the tape scandal broke out[68].

November 12, 2006 – local elections were held[69].

November 21, 2006 – Methane explosion at the Halemba mine in Ruda Śląska. 23 miners were killed[70].

Summer 2007 – the Law and Justice-Samobrona-LPR coalition collapsed[71].

October 21, 2007 – the parliamentary elections were won by Civic Platform (PO) with 41.5%[71].

January 23, 2008 – a plane crash occurred in Miroslawiec, killing 20 people[72].

April 1, 2008 – Poland adopted the Lisbon Treaty[73].

December 1-12, 2008 – the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Poznan[74].

February 11, 2009 – compulsory military service was abolished[75].

April 13, 2009 – a social hotel burned down in Kamień Pomorski. The disaster resulted in the deaths of 23 people[76].

June 7, 2009 – elections to the European Parliament were held[77].

July 14, 2009 – Jerzy Buzek became President of the European Parliament[78].

April 10, 2010 – President of the Republic of Poland Lech Kaczynski and his wife died in a plane crash in Smolensk. Other fatalities included: the last President of the Republic of Poland in exile Ryszard Kaczorowski. A total of 96 people were killed[71]

May-June 2010 – Poland was hit by flooding, compared to the great flood of 1997[79].

June 20, 2010 – the first round of presidential elections was held. None of the candidates received a minimum of half of the votes, Bronislaw Komorowski and Jaroslaw Kaczynski went to the second round[80].

July 4, 2010 – 2nd round of presidential elections. Bronislaw Komorowski was elected president of the Republic of Poland[80].

October 9, 2011 – parliamentary elections were held. Civic Platform received the most support (39.18% of the vote)[71].

March 3, 2012 – a head-on collision between two passenger trains near Szczekociny killed 16 people and injured 57[81].

June 8-July 1, 2012 – hosting the 2012 European Football Championships together with Ukraine. It is the first sports event of this size in Poland’s history[82].

July 26, 2012 – the Central Statistical Office published detailed results of the 2011 National Population and Housing Census, which showed that on the census’s reference date, March 31, 2011, Poland’s actual population was 38,511,824 people[83].

October 28, 2013 – Tadeusz Mazowiecki, the first non-communist prime minister of the Third Republic, died[84].

May 25, 2014 – European Parliament elections were held[85].

May 25, 2014 – General Wojciech Jaruzelski died[86].

June 4, 2014 – the 25th anniversary of the elections to the Contract Sejm was celebrated[87].

June 14, 2014 – the wiretapping scandal broke[88].

September 22, 2014 – after Donald Tusk stepped down as Prime Minister, Ewa Kopacz’s government was sworn in[89].

November 16, 2014 – local elections were held[90].

December 1, 2014 – Donald Tusk took office as President of the European Council[91].

May 10, 2015 – the first round of the presidential election was won by Andrzej Duda with 34.76%[92].

May 24, 2015 – The second round of the presidential election was won by Andrzej Duda with 51.55%[92].

August 6, 2015 – Andrzej Duda was sworn in as President of the Republic of Poland[93].

September 6, 2015 – a referendum was held on the introduction of single-mandate electoral districts in the elections to the Sejm, the attitude to the current method of financing political parties from the state budget, and the interpretation of the principles of tax law in case of doubt in favor of the taxpayer. Due to the low turnout (7.80%), the result of the referendum was not binding[94].

October 25, 2015 – parliamentary elections were held, won by Law and Justice[95].

November 5, 2015 – Lieutenant General Czeslaw Kiszczak, prime minister in 1989 and co-responsible for the imposition of martial law in 1981, died[96].

November 16, 2015 – Beata Szydło’s Council of Ministers and inaugural cabinet meeting were sworn in[97].

December 16, 2016-January 12, 2017 – Sejm crisis

December 11, 2017 – Mateusz Morawiecki’s government was sworn in

November 11, 2018 – celebration of the 100th anniversary of Poland’s independence

January 13, 2019 – Gdansk Mayor Pawel Adamowicz was attacked with a knife during the 27th finale of the Great Orchestra of Christmas Charity in Gdansk, after which he died the next day from extensive injuries.

February 7, 2019 – Jan Olszewski, prime minister from 1991 to 1992, died.

April 8, 2019 – nationwide teachers’ strike began, with nearly two-thirds of all public educational institutions joining (suspended from April 27, 2019 to September 2019)[98][99]

May 26, 2019 – elections to the European Parliament were held[100].

October 13, 2019 – elections to the Sejm and Senate were held, won by Law and Justice with 43.59% of the vote[101].

May 10, 2020 – due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the first round of presidential elections was not held

June 28, 2020 – 1st round of presidential elections, Andrzej Duda went to the second round with 43.50% and Rafał Trzaskowski with 30.45%[102].

July 12, 2020 – Second round of presidential elections, Andrzej Duda was again elected president of the Republic of Poland with a score of 51.03%[102].

Share :

Leave your comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *